1989 – HP Journal Index

February 1989 v.40 n.1

Cover: The circuit diagram of a zero-dead-time-counter, a key component of the HP 5371A Frequency and Time Interval Analyzer

Characterization of Time Varying Frequency Behavior Using Continuous Measurement Technology. The HP 5371A Frequency and Time Interval Analyzer implements the continuous measurement technique to provide advanced capabilities for measuring frequency and time interval variations, by Mark Wechsler, pg 6-12. See Also the Corrections section below.

Analyzing Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Signals, by Richard Schneider, pg 8

Firmware System Design for a Frequency and Time Interval Analyzer. Built-in control and analysis firmware tailors the continuous measurement technology of the HP 5371A to dynamic frequency and time interval applications, by Lisa B. Stambaugh, Terrance K. Nimori, pg 13-21

Table-Driven Help Screen Structure Provides On-Line Operating Manual. The structure and firmware were designed for ease of reuse, by Lisa B. Stambaugh, pg 21-24. 5371A.

Input Amplifier and Trigger Circuit for a 500-MHz Frequency and Time Interval Analyzer. Two thick-film hybrid circuits provide precise, stable high-frequency triggering in manual trigger, single autotrigger, and repetitive autotrigger modes, by Johann J. Heinzl, pg 24-27

Phase Digitizing: A New Method for Capturing and Analyzing Spread-Spectrum Signals. By continuously counting and time-tagging zero crossings, a phase or time encoded signal can be digitized and analyzed with efficiency and precision, by David C. Chu, pg 28-35

See Also: Corrections: Two corrections for the article “Phase Digitizing: A New Method for Capturing and Analyzing Spread-Spectrum Signals”; also a correction to figures on page 7 and page 9 in “Characterization of Time Varying Frequency Behavior Using Continuous Measurement Technology”, page 6 in the same issue, page 56 in the April 1989 issue

Reading a Counter on the Fly, pg 33

Frequency and Time Interval Analyzer Measurement Hardware. Examples of measurements on a frequency agile radio are used to illustrate the design and operation of the measurement hardware of the HP 5371A analyzer, by Paul S. Stephenson, pg 35-41

An Integrated Voice and Data Network Based on Virtual Circuits. Developed as an HP Laboratories research project, this network offers true integration of voice and data, a single architecture for local and wide area networks, high throughput, low host overhead, very good cost/performance ratio, and effective interfacing to existing standards, by Robert Coackley, Howard L. Steadman, pg 42-49. StarLAN 10.

Authors February 1989: Mark Weschler, Lisa B. Stambaugh, Terrance [Terry] K. Nimori, Johann J. Heinzl, David C. Chu, Paul S. Stephenson, Howard L. Steadman, Robert [Bob] Coackley, Fred H. Ives, Mark D. Talbot, Dale R. Beucler, James [Jim] O. Barnes, Craig A. Heikes, Thomas [Tom] M. Higgins, Jr., Kenneth [Ken] S. Thompson, David [Dave] J. Schwartz, Alan L. McCormick, pg 49-51

Multifunction Synthesizer for Building Complex Waveform. The HP 8904A uses digital synthesis and VLSI technology to provide a highly reliable tool for demanding applications like VOR, ILS, FM stereo, and communication signaling, by Fred H. Ives, pg 52-57. 8904A.

Mechanical Design of the HP 8904A, by Larry R. Wright, pg 55-56

Digital Waveform Synthesis IC Architecture. The digital waveform synthesis IC is the heart of the HP 8904A Multifunction Synthesizer. It provides a digital approach to the conventional analog functions of modulation and signal generation, by Mark D. Talbot, pg 57-62

Development of a Digital Waveform Synthesis Integrated Circuit. The digital waveform synthesis IC is an excellent example of using custom VLSI in an instrument to reduce cost and increase functionality, accuracy, and reliability, by Craig A. Heikes, James O. Barnes, Dale R. Beucler, pg 62-65. 8904A.

Analog Output System Design for a Multifunction Synthesizer. The analog output system for the HP 8904A takes the 12-bit data stream from the digital waveform synthesis IC and converts it to an analog signal with excellent frequency response and low distortion, by Thomas M. Higgins, Jr., pg 66-69

A Generating a Phase-Locked Binary Reference Frequency, pg 68

Firmware Design for a Multiple-Mode Instrument. The firmware architecture of the HP 8904A Multifunction Synthesizer is designed to handle the existing operating modes efficiently and to facilitate evolutionary changes, by Mark D. Talbot, pg 70-73

Multifunction Synthesizer Applications. Application areas for the HP 8904A Multifunction Synthesizer include telecommunications, navigation, mobile radio communications, consumer electronics, sonar, and electromechanical systems, by Kenneth S. Thompson, pg 73-76

Testing and Process Monitoring for a Multifunction Synthesizer. Ensuring the quality and reliability of the HP 8904A Multifunction Synthesizer required a twofold test strategy: understanding the critical characteristics of the instrument and process control, by David J. Schwartz, Alan L. McCormick, pg 77-80

Assuring Reliability, by Donald Borowski, pg 80

April 1989 v.40 n.2

Cover: A 3458A Digital Multimeter

An 8 1/2-Digit Digital Multimeter Capable of 100,000 Readings per Second and Two-Source Calibration. A highly linear and extremely flexible analog-to-digital converter and a state-of-the-art design give this DMM new performance and measurement capabilities for automated test, calibration laboratory, or R&D applications, by Scott D. Stever, pg 6-7. 3458A.

An 8 1/2-Digit Integrating Analog-to-Digital Converter with 16-Bit, 100,000-Sample-per-Second Performance. This integrating-type AC uses multislope runup, multislope rundown, and a two-input structure to achieve the required speed, resolution and linearity, by Wayne C. Goeke, pg 8-15. 3458A.

Precision AC Voltage Measurements Using Digital Sampling Techniques. Instead of traditional DMM techniques such as thermal conversion or analog computation, the HP 3458A DMM measures rms ac voltages by sampling the input signal and computing the rms value digitally in real time. Track-and-hold circuit performance is critical to the accuracy of the method, by Ronald L. Swerlein, pg 15-21

Calibration of an 8 1/2-Digit Multimeter from Only Two External Standards. Internal transfer standards and autocalibration simplify external calibration and extend the period between external calibrations to two years, by Scott D. Stever, Wayne C. Goeke, Ronald L. Swerlein, Stephen B. Venzke, pg 22-30. 3458A.

Josephson Junction Arrays, by John Giem, pg 24-25

A High-Stability Voltage Reference, by David E. Smith, pg 28

Design for High Throughput in a System Digital Multimeter. High-speed custom gate arrays, microprocessors, and supporting hardware and a substantial investment in firmware design contributed to the design of the HP 3458A DMM as a system for moving data efficiently, by Gary A. Ceely, David J. Rustici, pg 31-38

Firmware Development System, by Victoria K. Sweetser, pg 33-34

Custom UART Design, by David J. Rustici, pg 36

High-Resolution Digitizing Techniques with an Integrating Digital Multimeter. Capabilities and limitations of the HP 3458A Digital Multimeter as a high-resolution digitizer are summarized. Performance data is presented for selected applications, by David A. Czenkusch, pg 39-49

Time Interpolation, by David E. Smith, pg 42-43

Measurement of Capacitor Dissipation Factor using Digitizing, by Ronald L. Swerlein, pg 46-47

A Structural Approach to Software Defect Analysis. An effective software defect analysis requires that the relationships between program faults, human errors, and flaws in the design process be understood and characterized before corrective measures can be implemented, by Takeshi Nakajo, Katsuhiko Sasabuchi, Tadashi Akiyama, pg 50-56

Corrections: Two corrections for the article “Phase Digitizing: A New Method for Capturing and Analyzing Spread-Spectrum Signals”, page 28 in the February 1989 issue; also a correction to figures on page 7 and page 9 in “Characterization of Time Varying Frequency Behavior Using Continuous Measurement Technology”, page 6 in the same issue, pg 56

Dissecting Software Failures. Beyond collecting software defect data just to study defect frequency, this paper outlines a quality data collection process, an effective analysis process, and a method to justify changes in the software development process based on the defect analysis, by Robert B. Grady, pg 57-63

Defect Origins and Types, pg 62

Software Defect Prevention Using McCabe’s Complexity Metric. HP’s Waltham Division has started to use this methodology and its associated tools to catch defect prone software modules early and to assist in the testing process, by William T. Ward, pg 64-69. See Also: Correction: Corrected figure from page 66 in the June 1989 issue, page 78

The Cyclomatic Complexity Metric, by Thomas J. McCabe, pg 66-67

Object-Oriented Unit Testing. HP’s Waltham Division has taken a first step in applying new and traditional unit testing concepts to a software product implemented in an object-oriented language, by Steven P. Fiedler, pg 69-74

Validation and Further Application of Software Reliability Growth Models. After two years of use, a software reliability growth model has been validated with empirical data, and now it is being expanded to estimate test duration before it begins, by Gregory A. Kruger, pg 75-79. Lake Stevens Instrument Division.

See Also: Correction: Replacement for the equation on page 75 in the article “Validation and Further Application of Software Reliability Growth Models”, page 31 in the August 1989 issue

Comparing Structured and Unstructured Methodologies in Firmware Development. Structured methodologies have been promoted as a solution to software productivity and quality problems. At HP’s Logic Systems Division one project used both structured and unstructured techniques, and collected metrics and documented observations for comparing the two methodologies, by William A. Fischer, Jr., James W. Jost, pg 80-85

An Object-Oriented Methodology for Systems Analysis and Specification. A methodology is proposed that enables analysts to model and specify a system’s data, interactions, processing and external behavior before design, by Donna Ho, Teresa A. Wall, Barry D. Kurtz, pg 86-90

VXIbus: A New Interconnection Standard for Modular Instruments. This standard will allow users to mix modules from different manufactures in a system contained in a single mainframe, by Kenneth Jessen, pg 91-95

VXIbus Product Development Tools. A VXIbus mainframe, a pair of modules, software, and accessories will help manufacturers develop VXIbus modules and systems more easily, by Kenneth Jessen, pg 96-97

Authors April 1989: Scott D. Stever, Wayne C. Goeke, Stephen [Steve] B. Venzke, Ronald [Ron] L. Swerlein, Gary A. Ceely, David J. Rustici, David [Dave] A. Czenkusch, Takeshi Nakajo, Katsuhiko Sasabuchi, Tadashi Akiyama, Robert [Bob} B. Grady, William [Jack] T. Ward, Steven [Steve] P. Fiedler, Gregory [Greg] A. Kruger, William [Bill] A. Fischer, Jr., James [Jim] W. Jost, Barry D. Kurtz, Teresa A. Wall, Donna Ho, Kenneth [Ken] Jessen, pg 98-100

June 1989 v.40 n.3

Cover: A veterinary bolus assembly line at the ALZA Corporation in Palo Alto, California; ALZA Directory of Quality Assurance Carol L. Hartstein with a simulated monitor screen

A Data Base for Real-Time Applications and Environments. HP Real-Time Data Base is a set of subroutines and a query facility that enable real-time application developers to build and access a real-time, high-performance, memory-resident data management system. The software runs in an HP-UX environment on an HP 9000 Series 300 or 800 Computer, by Cynthia Givens, Michael J. Wright, Le T. Hong, Michael R. Light, Feyzi Fatehi, Ching-Chao Liu, pg 6-17

New Midrange Members of the Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture Computer Family. Higher performance comes from faster VLSI parts, bigger cache and TLB subsystems, a new floating-point coprocessor, and other enhancements. A new 16M-byte memory board is made possible by a double-sided surface mount manufacturing process, by John Keller, Thomas O. Meyer, Floyd E. Moore, Jeffrey G. Hargis, Russell C. Brockmann, pg 18-25. HP 9000 Model 835, HP 3000 Series 935.

Double-sided Surface Mount Process, by Andy Vogen, pg 23-24

Data Compression in a Half-Inch Reel-to-Reel Tape Drive. A proprietary data compression algorithm implemented in a custom CMOS VLSI chip improves the throughput and data capacity of the HP 7980XC Tape Drive, by David J. Van Maren, Mark J. Bianchi, Jeffery J. Kato, pg 26-31

Maximizing Tape Capacity by Super-Blocking. Interrecord gaps on the tape limit the capacity improvement attainable with data compression in the HP 7980XC Tape Drive. Super-blocking eliminates most of these gaps, by Jeffery J. Kato, Mark J. Bianchi, David J. Van Maren, pg 32-34

High-Speed Lightwave Component Analysis. A new analyzer system performs stimulus-response testing of electrical-to-optical, optical-to-electrical, optical-to-optical, and electrical-to-electrical components of high-speed fiber optic communications systems, by Roger W. Wong, Paul Hernday, Michael G. Hart, Geraldine A. Conrad, pg 35-51. 8702A.

OTDR versus OFDR, pg 43

Design and Operation of High-Frequency Lightwave Sources and Receivers. These compact, rugged modules are essential components of HP 8702A Lightwave Component Analyzer Systems, by Kent W. Leyde, Kenneth W. Shaughnessy, Rollin F. Rawson, Robert D. Albin, pg 52-57

High-Speed PIN Infrared Photodetectors for HP Lightwave Receivers, by Susan Sloan, pg 56

Videoscope: A Nonintrusive Test Tool for Personal Computers. The Videoscope system uses signature analysis techniques developed for digital troubleshooting to provide a tool that allows a tester to create an automated test suite for doing performance, compatibility, and regression testing of applications running on HP Vectra Personal Computers, by Danny Low, Myron R. Tuttle, pg 58- 64

Video Signature Analyzer Operation, pg 62-63

Authors June 1989: Michael [Mike] R. Light, Michael  [Mike] J. Wright, Le T. Hong, Cynthia Givens, Feyzi Fatehi, Ching-Chao Liu, Thomas [Tom] O. Meyer, Jeffrey [Jeff] G. Hargis, John Keller, Floyd E. Moore, Russell [Russ] C. Brockmann, Jeffery [Jeff] J. Kato, Mark J. Bianchi, David [Dave] J. Van Maren, Michael [Mike] G. Hart, Paul Hernday, Geraldine [Gerry] A. Conrad, Roger W. Wong, Kenneth [Ken] W. Shaughnessy, Kent W. Leyde, Rollin [Fred] F. Rawson, Robert [Dale] D. Albin, Myron R. Tuttle, Danny Low, J. Barry Shackleford, Vladimir Naroditsky, Wulf D. Rehder, Paul J. Marcoux, Paul P. Merchant, pg 65-68

Neural Data Structures: Programming with Neurons. Networks of neurons can quickly find good solutions to many optimization problems. Looking at such problems in terms of certain neural data structures makes programming neural networks natural and intuitive, by J. Barry Shackleford, pg 69-78. John J. Hopfield.

Correction: A replacement for figure 1 on page 66 in the article “The Cyclomatic Complexity Metric”, in the April 1989 issue, pg 78

A New 2D Simulation Model of Electromigration. Electromigration in miniature IC interconnect lines is simulated in HP’s sophisticated two-dimensional model, giving new quantitative and graphical insights into one of the most important metallization failure sources for VLSI chips, by Paul P. Merchant, Vladimir Naroditsky, Wulf D. Rehder, Paul J. Marcoux, pg 79-84

August 1989 v.40 n.4

Cover: The cover shows the displays that would appear when a NewWave Office user opens a file drawer, selects a folder, and chooses a document to edit

An Overview of the HP NewWave Environment The NewWave environment allows users to concentrate on the task and not the computer system. For developers of new applications, it provides the facilities to integrate applications into the NewWave environment, by Ian J. Fuller, pg 6-8

An Object-Based User Interface for the HP NewWave Environment. The NewWave environment is designed to allow users to focus on their tasks and not the tools. To accomplish this, the NewWave environment presents users with a conceptual model based on an office metaphor that is built on an object-based architecture, by Peter S. Showman, pg 9-17

The NewWave Object Management Facility. An object-based file system is the foundation of the New Wave environment. This paper describes the concepts and features of the system, by John A. Dysart, pg 17-22

The NewWave Office. The NewWave Office is the user interface for the NewWave environment. It provides the tools and methods to perform tasks found in a regular office environment, by Beatrice Lam, Scott A. Hanson, Anthony J. Day, pg 23-31

Trademark Acknowledgments for this Issue, pg 31

Correction: Replacement for the equation on page 75 in the article “Validation and Further Application of Software Reliability Growth Models”, in the April 1989 issue, pg 31

Agents and the HP NewWave Application Program Interface. In the NewWave environment, an agent is a software robot that acts as a personal assistant for the user. The agent interacts with the applications through the application program interface, by Glenn R. Stearns, pg 32-37

AI Principles in the Design of the NewWave Agent and API, pg 35

An Extensible Agent Task Language. With this language, users of the HP NewWave environment can create scripts to direct their NewWave agent to perform tasks for them. The language is designed for both novice and knowledgeable users, by Barbara B. Packard, Charles H. Whelan, pg 38-42

A NewWave Task Language Example, pg 40

The HP NewWave Environment Help Facility. The NewWave environment provides a common, context sensitive, intuitive, unobtrusive help facility for NewWave applications, by Vicky Spilman, Eugene J. Wong, pg 43-47

NewWave Computer-Based Training Development Facility. Computer-based training in the NewWave environment allows users to learn how to use the system at their own pace, and provides facilities for users to create their own computer-based training courseware, by R. Thomas Watson, Brian B. Egan, John J. Jencek, Lawrence A. Lynch-Freshner, pg 48-56

Encapsulation of Applications in the NewWave Environment. To allow non-NewWave applications to run in the NewWave environment, the NewWave encapsulation facilities provide features for the partial or full integration of these applications into the NewWave environment, by William M. Crow, pg 57-64

[Authors:] Ian J. Fuller, Peter [Pete] S. Showman, John [Andy] A. Dysart, Scott A. Hanson, Anthony [Tony] J. Day, Beatrice [Bea] Lam, Glenn R. Stearns, Charles [Chuck] H. Whelan, Barbara B. Packard, Vicky Spilman, Eugene J. Wong, Lawrence [Larry] A. Lynch-Freshner, R. [Tom] Thomas Watson, John J. Jencek, Brian B. Egan, William [Bill] M. Crow, Andrew [Andy] D. Topham, David [Dave] Gills, Tracey A. Hains, Mark J. Simms, Paul F. Bartlett, Paul F. Robinson, Thomas [Tom] F. Kraemer, pg 64-66

Mechanical Design of a New Quarter-Inch Cartridge Tape Drive. The design of the HP9145A Tape Drive required doubling both the track density and the tape speed of the existing HP 9144A, thereby doubling the older drive’s 67-Mbyte capacity and 2-Mbyte-per-minute transfer rate, by Andrew D. Topham, pg 67-73

Reliability Assessment of a Quarter-Inch Cartridge Tape Drive. Aggressive quality standards were verified by over 97,000 test hours before manufacturing release and are audited continually in production, by David Gills, pg 74-78. 9145A.

Use of Structured Methods for Real-Time Peripheral Firmware. HP’s Computer Peripherals Bristol Division made some significant changes in their firmware development process to ensure that they met a demanding development schedule and still produced a quality product, by Tracey A. Hains, Paul F. Bartlett, Mark J. Simms, Paul F. Robinson, pg 79-86

Product Development Using Object-Oriented Software Technology. Object-oriented technology is rapidly becoming an accepted technology for designing and developing software systems. This paper provides a brief history, a tutorial, and a description of HP’s Lake Stevens Instrument Division’s experience using the technology for product development, by Thomas F. Kraemer, pg 87-100.

See Also: Correction: Replacement for the equation on page 75 in the article “Validation and Further Application of Software Reliability Growth Models”, page 31 in the October 1989 issue

Objective-C Coding Example, pg 95

Object-Oriented Life Cycles, pg 98

October 1989 v.40 n.5

Cover: The fractional-N module from HP’s Performance Signal Generator family

40 Years of Chronicling Technical Achievement. Over the last 40 years the HP Journal has created a record of HP’s technical achievements by communicating technical information to professional people in all fields served by HP. With Hewlett-Packard celebrating its 50th anniversary it seems appropriate to take a look at the HP Journal, past and present, and some of the technological history of HP it has chronicled, by Charles L. Leath, pg 6-13

A Modular Family of High-Performance Signal Generators. Three signal generators, each designed for a particular type of application and each offering several options, let the user choose and pay for exactly the capability required, by Michael D. McNamee, David L. Platt, pg 14-20. 8644A, 8645A, 8665A.

Firmware Development for Modular Instrumentation. Of three major subsystems in the Performance Signal Generator control firmware, only one contains instrument-specific code. Additional hardware and firmware for calibration and diagnostic purposes provide important customer and production benefits, by Kerwin D. Kanago, Brian D. Watkins, Mark A. Stambaugh, pg 20-26. PSG.

RF Signal Generator Single-Loop Frequency Synthesis, Phase Noise Reduction, and Frequency Modulation. This signal generator design uses only a single phase-locked loop for frequency synthesis and one or more frequency-locked loops for phase noise reduction. The frequency-locked loops are based on delay line discriminators. Frequency modulation is introduced into all loops, by Earl C. Herleikson, Brad E. Andersen, pg 27-33. PSG, 8644A, 8645A, 8665A.

Fractional-N Synthesis Module, by Barton L. McJunkin, pg 28

Delay Line Discriminators and Frequency-Locked Loops, by Earl C. Herleikson, pg 30-31

Design Considerations in a Fast Hopping Voltage-Controlled Oscillator. The fast hopping requirement affected the design of the discriminator power amplifier, phase shifter, and delay line, the wideband feedback loop, and the VCO pretune circuit by Barton L. McJunkin, David M. Hoover, pg 34-36. 8645A.

High-Spectral-Purity Frequency Synthesis in a Microwave Signal Generator. A low-noise YIG-tuned fundamental oscillator and a GaAs divider contribute to the spectral purity of the HP 8665A 4.2-GHz Synthesized Signal Generator, by Douglas R. Snook, James B. Summers, pg 37-41

Microwave Signal Generator Output System Design. Noise performance and level accuracy were major design concerns. Thick-film microcircuits, some “packageless” are used extensively, by Steve R. Fried, Keith L. Fries, John M. Sims, pg 42-50. 8665A.

“Packageless” Microcircuits, by Bennie E. Helmso, pg 44

Design of a High-Performance Pulse Modulation System. The pulse modulation option for the HP 8665A Synthesized Signal Generator adds a pulse modulator and an internal pulse generator. The pulse modulator uses gallium arsenide field-effect transistor switches on microwave monolithic integrated circuits, by Douglas R. Snook, G. Stephen Curtis, pg 51-59. 8665A.

Reducing Radiated Emissions in the Performance Signal Generator Family. Two levels of radiated emissions are offered: one standard and one optional. The optional level, – 133 dBm into a two-turn loop one inch away from any surface, is 26 dB lower than the standard specification, by Donald T. Borowski, Larry R. Wright, pg 59-65

Authors October 1989: Michael [Mike] D. McNamee, David [Dave] L. Platt, Brian D. Watkins, Kerwin D. Kanago, Mark A. Stambaugh, Earl C. Herleikson, Brad E. Andersen, Barton [Bart] L. McJunkin, David [Dave] M. Hoover, Douglas [Doug] R. Snook, James [Jim] B. Summers, Steve R. Fried, Keith L. Fries, John M. Sims, G. Stephen [Steve] Curtis, Larry R. Wright, Donald [Don] T. Borowski, Susan R. Sloan, Eve M. Tanner, Catherine [Cathy] A. Keely, Anastasia [Stacy] M. Martelli, Lucy M. Berlin, Carolyn F. Jones, pg 66-68

Processing and Passivation Techniques for Fabrication of High-Speed InP/InGaAs/InP Mesa Photodetectors. Proper surface preparation and a conformal mesa passivation covering are critical to the production of low-dark-current photodiodes. The best results have been obtained with a wet chemical etch followed by double-layer polyimide passivation, by Susan R. Sloan, pg 69-75

Providing Programmers with a Driver Debug Technique. Symbolic debugging is difficult for programmers who are developing drivers to run under the HP-UX operating system but do not have HP-UX source licenses. A technique is described to use available compiler information to provide access to certain HP-UX debug records, by Eve M. Tanner, pg 76-80

HP-UX Object Module Structure, pg 78

Identifying Useful HP-UX Debug Records, pg 79

Solder Joint Inspection Using Laser Doppler Vibrometry. Good solder joints can be distinguished from bad joints by their vibration spectra. Vibration frequencies for bad joints are consistent for a given lead type, by Catherine A. Keely, pg 81-85

Laser Doppler Vibrometry, pg 82-83

Correction: Replacement for the equation on page 75 in the article “Validation and Further Application of Software Reliability Growth Models”, in the April 1989 issue, pg 31

A Model for HP-UX Shared Libraries Using Shared Memory on HP Precision Architecture Computers. To meet the needs of the PORT/HP-UX product, a special model for shared libraries was developed and implemented on HP 9000 Series 800 Computers, by Anastasia M. Martelli, pg 86-90. PORT/RX.

User-Centered Application Definition: A Methodology and Case Study. This paper presents a practical user-centered methodology for application definition. The methodology encompasses interviewing strategies, task analysis, and storyboarding techniques. The need for systematic user analysis is demonstrated, and the methodology is illustrated by a case study, by Lucy M. Berlin, pg 90-97

Interviewing Techniques, pg 92

Storyboarding Techniques, by Cathy Fletcher, pg 95-96

Partially Reflective Light Guides for Optoelectronics Applications. The guides control the light from an array of light-emitting diodes in a high-performance, low-cost erase bar for electrophotographic copiers, by Carolyn F. Jones, pg 98-104.

See Also: Correction: Words were transposed in the equations and text on page 99 in the article “Partially Reflective Light Guides for Optoelectronics Applications”; also other corrections to the same figures, page 57 in the December 1989 issue

December 1989 v.40 n.6

Cover: The HP 9000 Series 300 display shows the results obtainable using a Starbase/X11 Merge system display mode called combined mode

System Design for Compatibility of a High-Performance Graphics Library and the X Window System. The Starbase/X11 Merge system provides an architecture that enables Starbase applications and X Window System applications to coexist in the same window environment, by Kenneth H. Bronstein, David J. Sweetser, William R. Yoder, pg 6-12

The Starbase Graphics Package, pg 7

The X Window System, pg 8

Starbase/X11 Merge Glossary, pg 11-12

Managing and Sharing Display Objects in the Starbase/X11 Merge System. To allow Starbase and X to share graphics resources, a special process called the graphics resource manager was created to manage access to the shared resources. An object-oriented approach was taken to encapsulate these shared graphics resources, by Courtney Loomis, Robert C. Cline, James R. Andreas, pg 12-19

Sharing Access to Display Resources in the Starbase/X11 Merge System. The Starbase/X11 Merge system provides features to allow Starbase applications direct access to the display hardware at the same time X server clients are running. There are also capabilities to allow sharing of cursors and the hardware color map, by Jens R. Owen, Steven P. Hiebert, Jeff R. Boyton, Sankar L. Chakrabarti, Keith A. Marchington, John A. Waitz, Peter R. Robinson, John J. Lang, Michael H. Stroyan, pg 20-32

Sharing Overlay and Image Planes in the Starbase/X11 Merge System. Developing a method to take full advantage of the capabilities of display memory was one of the challenges of the Starbase/X11 Merge products, by John J. Lang, Keith A. Marchington, Steven P. Hiebert, pg 33-38

Sharing Input Devices in the Starbase/X11 Merge System. To provide support for the full set of HP input devices and to provide access to these devices for Starbase applications running in the X environment, extensions were added to the X core input devices: the keyboard and the pointer, by Ian A. Elliot, George M. Sachs, pg 38-41

X Input Protocol and X Input Extensions, pg 39

Sharing Testing Responsibilities in the Starbase/X11 Merge System. The testing process for the Starbase/X11 Merge software involved setting realizable quality goals, and using extensive test suites and test tools to measure and automate the process, by John M. Brown, Thomas J. Gilg, pg 42-46

Authors December 1989: David J. Sweetser, Kenneth [Ken] H. Bronstein, William [Bill] R. Yoder, Robert [Bob] C. Cline, James [Jim] R. Andreas, Courtney Loomis, Michale [Mike] H. Stroyan, John J. Lang, Jeff R. Boyton, Sankar L. Chakrabarti, Jens R. Owen, John A. Waitz, Peter R. Robinson, Keith A. Marchington, Steven [Steve] P. Hiebert, George M. Sachs, Ian A. Elliott, John M. Brown, Thomas J. Gilg, B. David Cathell, Michael [Mike] B. Kaistein, Stephen [Steve] J. Pearce, Rainer Plitschka, Larry J. Thayer, David [Dave] A. Burgoon,  pg 47-49

A Compiled Source Access System Using CD-ROM and Personal Computers. HP Source Reader is in use in virtually every HP support facility around the world, giving local support engineers fast access to complete source code listings for MPE, the HP 3000 Computer operating system, by Stephen J. Pearce, Michael B. Kalstein, B. David Cathell, pg 50-57

Correction: Words were transposed in the equations and text on page 99 in the article “Partially Reflective Light Guides for Optoelectronics Applications”, in the October 1989 issue; also other corrections to the same figures, pg 57

Transmission Line Effects in Testing High-Speed Devices with a High-Performance Test System. The testing of high-speed, high-pin-count ICs that are not designed to drive transmission lines can be a problem, since the tester-to-device interconnection almost always acts like a transmission line. The HP 82000 IC Evaluation System uses a resistive divider technique to test CMOS and other high-speed devices accurately, by Rainer Plitschka, pg 58-67

CMOS Device Measurement Results, pg 65

Index: Volume 40 January 1989 through December 1989. PART 1: Chronological Index, pg 67-68. PART 2: Subject Index, pg 69-72. PART 3: Product Index, pg 72. PART 4: Author Index, pg 72-73.

Custom VLSI in the 3D Graphics Pipeline. VLSI transform engine, z-cache, and pixel processor chips widen bottlenecks in the pipeline to allow the HP9000 Series 300 and 800 TurboSRX graphics subsystem to deliver enhanced performance compared to the earlier SRX design, by Larry J. Thayer, pg 74-77

Global Illumination Modeling Using Radiosity. Radiosity is a complementary method to ray tracing for global illumination modeling. HP 9000 TurboSRX graphics workstations now offer three illumination models: radiosity, ray tracing and a local illumination model, by David A. Burgoon, pg 78-88