1983 – HP Journal Index

January 1983 v.34 n.1

Cover: HP-IL (Hewlett Packard Interface Loop)

HP-IL: A Low-Cost Digital Interface for Portable Applications. The Hewlett-Packard Interface Loop is a bit-serial interface bringing many capabilities formerly reserved for much larger computer systems to the growing repertoire of portable computers and handheld calculators, by Roger D. Quick, Steven L. Harper, pg 3-10

How Fast is the HP-IL? by Steve Harper, pg 7

HP-IL Interconnect System. Clever plugs and connectors and inexpensive two-wire cords connect HP-IL devices, by James H. Fleming, pg 8

[Authors:] Steven [Steve] L. Harper, Roger D. Quick, pg 9

The Electronics Interface for the Hewlett-Packard Interface Loop. This low-cost, low-power, serial interface uses two-wire cables, a three-level code, a CMOS IC, and small pulse transformers, by Carl J. Landsness, pg 11-16. HP-IL, 82160A.

[Author:] Carl J. Landsness, pg 16

A CMOS Integrated Circuit for the HP-IL Interface. This IC, available to OEM designers, makes it easy to add HP-IL capability to a product, by Steven L. Harper, pg 16-22

CMOSC: Low-Power Technology for Personal Computers. To meet the growing need for integrated circuits with more functions and lower power consumption, an improved CMOS process has been developed at HP’s Corvallis Division, by Craig S. Lage, Norman L. Johnson, David E. Hackleman, John J. Vietor, Robert L. Tillman, pg 23-29

What is a Latch-Up? pg 28

[Authors:] Norman [Norm] L. Johnson, David E. Hackleman, John J. Vietor, Robert [Bob] L. Tillman, Craig S. Lage, pg 29

Advanced Oven Design Assures Repeatability in New Gas Chromatograph. An innovative oven design gives the chromatographer access to the full capabilities of the new fused silica capillary columns, by Douglas H. Smith, Paul C. Dryden, Horace R. Johnson, Jr., pg 30-34. 5790A.

What is Gas Chromatography? Here’s some basic information for nonchemists, by Fred W. Rowland, pg 32-33

[Author:] Fred W. Rowland, pg 33

[Authors:] Douglas [Doug] H. Smith, Horace R. Johnson, Jr., Paul C. Dryden, pg 34

Electronic Flow Control: A New Level of Automation for Gas Chromatography. An innovative gas flow controller for the HP 5880A Gas Chromatograph offers a choice of pressure or mass flow control without instrument modification and independent of the gas measured, by Michael A. Casale, Andrew J. Murphy, J. Edwin Cusack, Kurt B. Augenblick, pg 35-40

Producing the Electronic Flow Controller, pg 38

[Authors:] Kurt B. Augenblick, J. Edwin [Ed] Cusack, Michael [Mike] A. Cassale, Andrew [Andy] J. Murphy, pg 40

February 1983 v.34 n.2

Cover: 3421A Data Acquisition/Control Unit

A Portable, Low-Cost, High-Performance Digital Multimeter for the HP-IL. HP’s first HP-IL instrument is the result of new design and manufacturing approaches. This DMM electronically calibrates itself, measures ac and dc voltages and currents, makes four-wire and two-wire resistance measurements, and uses a liquid-crystal display to output data measurement units, and alphanumeric messages, by Jack P. Trautman, Lawrence A. DesJardin, pg 3-10. 3468A.

HP-IB Version of 3468A, pg 5. 3478A.

The Philosophy Behind the Design, pg 8-9. 3468A.

[Authors:] Lawrence [Larry] A. DesJardin, Jack P. Trautman, pg 10

Low-Cost and Portability Come to Data Acquisition/Control Products. Inexpensive, portable data logging with the flexibility of a data acquisition/control system is now within the budget of nearly everyone making transducer measurements, by James J. Ressmeyer, pg 10-16. 3421A.

Data Acquisition and Control Software for the 3421A Using the HP-85 Computer. This system provides easy-to-use data logging capability at low cost, by David F. Leonard, pg 13-14

[Author:] David [Dave] F. Leonard, pg 14

[Author:] James [Jim] J. Ressmeyer, pg 16

Low-Cost Instrument Control: A New ROM for the HP-41 Handheld Computers. Now HP-41 users can control instruments to measure and analyze a variety of physical parameters on the bench or in the field, by David L. Wolpert, pg 16-19. 3468A, 44468A.

[Author:] David [Dave] L. Wolpert, pg 19

Electronic Mail for the Interactive Office. Here’s how electronic mail is implemented on the HP 3000 Computer System. HPMAIL lets users who aren’t familiar with computer technology exchange messages effectively within their organization, by Ian J. Fuller, pg 20-29

[Author:] Ian J. Fuller, pg 29

Integrated Tools Improve Programmer Productivity. This software subsystem for the HP 3000 Computer System saves program development time by giving the programmer access to several utilities through a single command interpreter, by Anil K. Shenoy, Carolyn M. Bircher, pg 30-36. HPToolset.

[Author:] Carolyn M. Bircher, Anil K. Shenoy, pg 36

March 1983 v.34 n.3

Cover: HP 64000 Logic Development System

Extensive Logic Development and Support Capability in One Convenient System. HP’s 64000 Logic Development Systems gets closer to the concept of an “electronic bench”. Real-time emulation, configuration flexibility, and integrated analysis functions are some features of this latest version of the 64000 System, by Michael W. Davis, John A. Scharrer, Robert G. Wickliff, Jr., pg 3-10

HP 64000 Terminal Software. Now a logic development station can exchange data and programs with large computers, by Paul D. Bame, pg 6

[Author:] Paul D. Bame, pg 6

The HP 64000 Measurement System. This software package can control and monitor any measurement operation in a 64000 System, by Kipper K. Fulghum, pg 8-9

[Author:] Kipper [Kip] K. Fulghum, pg 9

[Authors:] John A. Scharrer, Robert [Bob] G. Wickliff, Jr., Michael [Mike] W. Davis, pg 10

Mainframe Design for an Integrated Engineering Workstation. You can take the new 64110A Station with you to solve field problems. Both 64000 System stations now have dual flexible disc drives, by Alan J. DeVilbiss, Jeffrey H. Smith, Carlton E. Glitzke, pg 11-15

[Authors:] Carlton [Carl] E. Glitzke, Alan [Al] J. DeVilbiss, Jeffrey [Jeff] H. Smith, pg 15

A Modular Analyzer for Software Analysis in the 64000 System. Measuring software performance and tracing program flow is much easier with this new option, by Stan W. Bowlin, Steven R. Williams, Richard A. Nygaard, Jr., Frederick J. Palmer, Bryce S. Goodwin, Jr., pg 16-23. 64620S.

Range Detection in the 64620S State Analyzer, pg 18-19

Inverse Assembly for a General-Purpose Logic Analyzer, pg 21

[Authors:] Stan W. Bowlin, Frederick [Rick] J. Palmer, Richard [Rick] A. Nygaard, Jr., Bryce S. Goodwin, pg 22

[Author:] Steven [Steve] R. Williams, pg 23

A Modular Logic Timing Analyzer for the 64000 System. A dual-threshold mode, glitch detection, and a variety of triggering functions are some of this option’s features for the digital hardware designer, by Joel A. Zellmer, David L. Neuder, John E. Hanna, pg 23-30

[Authors:] David [Dave] L. Neuder, John [Ted] E. Hanna, Joel A. Zellmer, pg 30

Emulators for 16-bit Microprocessors. HP’s second-generation of emulators provides design support for a variety of new 16-bit devices, by John P. Romano, David B. Richey, pg 31-38

[Authors:] John P. Romano, David [Dave] B. Richey, pg 37

High-Level Language Compilers for Developing Microprocessor Systems. Choosing the right structure has important benefits for the user, by Joel D. Tesler, Martin W. Smith, pg 38-40

[Authors:] Joel D. Tesler, Martin [Marty] W. Smith, pg 40

April 1983 v.34 n.4

Cover: Laser Measurement System

A New Microcomputer-Controlled Laser Dimensional Measurement and Analysis System. Microcomputer control simplifies machine tool calibration. Other applications are in research and development, general-purpose metrology, and surface plate calibration, by Robert C. Quenelle, Lawrence J. Wuerz, pg 3-13. LMS, 5528A.

Dimensional Metrology Software Eases Calibration. An HP-85 Computer automates complex laser calibrations to save time and reduce errors, by Christopher Burns, Lawrence J. Wuerz, pg 4-5

Verifying the Laser Accuracy Specification, by Robert C. Quenelle, pg 8

Nonlinearity in Interferometer Measurements, by Robert C. Quenelle, pg 10

Automatic Compensation. Sensors help the laser measurement system compensate for atmospheric conditions and material temperature, by Deane A. Gardner, pg 12

[Authors:] Christopher [Chris] Burns, Deane A. Gardner, Lawrence [Larry] J. Wuerz, Robert [Bob] C. Quenelle, pg 13

Laser Optical Components for Machine Tool and Other Calibrations. Each optical component is designed to measure a particular degree of freedom of a machine tool, by Larry E. Truhe, David C. Woodruff, Richard R. Baldwin, pg 14-22. 5528A.

Manufacturing the Laser Tube. Custom-designed machines automate the process to control quality at every step, by Richard H. Grote, pg 17-18

[Author:] Richard [Dick] H. Grote, pg 18

Mechanical Design Features of the Laser Head. Low manufacturing cost and ease of repair are designed in, by Charles R. Steinmetz, pg 19-20

[Author:] Charles [Charlie] R. Steinmetz, pg 20

[Authors:] Larry E. Truhe, Richard [Dick] R. Baldwin, David [Dave] C. Woodruff, pg 22

Noise Figure Meter Sets Records for Accuracy, Repeatability, and Convenience. Noise figure measurements used to be mysterious, time consuming, difficult, and not very accurate. This instrument makes them quick, accurate and easy, by Howard L. Swain, Rick M. Cox, pg 23-34. 8970A.

A Noise Source for Noise Figure Measurements, by Donald R. Chambers, pg 26-27

Verifying the 8970A’s Accuracy in Production, by Harry Bunting, pg 28

Appendix: Noise Figure Basics, pg 33-34

[Authors:] Rick M. Cox, Howard L. Swain, pg 34

Laboratory Notebook: Mass Storage Unit Exerciser. The problem was how to provide built-in diagnostics for a flexible disc drive that didn’t come with them, by Jin-ichi Ikemoto, pg 35-36. 4145A.

May 1983 v.34 n.5

Cover: HP 8673A Synthesized Signal Generator

2-to-26.5-GHz Synthesized Signal Generator Has Internally Leveled Pulse Modulation. This second-generation instrument features microprocessor control, sophisticated sweep capabilities, programmability, and enhanced serviceability, by William W. Heinz, Paul A. Zander, pg 3-9. 8673A.

Sample-and-Hold Leveling System. A logarithmic amplifier in the feedback loop reduces the effects of loop-gain variations, by Ronald K. Larson, pg 7. 8673A.

[Authors:] William [Bill] W. Heinz, Paul A. Zander, pg 9

A Wideband YIG-Tuned Multiplier and Pulsed Signal Generation System. This system enhances output power and frequency range and reduces pulse rise time for HP’s latest synthesized signal generator, by Lawrence A. Stark, Ronald K. Larson, pg 10-16. 8673A.

Autopeaking. A small amount of hardware and some microprocessor code adjusts a YIG-tuned multiplier to the center of its passband, by Paul A. Zander, pg 12-13

[Authors:] Lawrence [Larry] A. Stark, Ronald [Ron] K. Larson, pg 16

Compact Digital Cassette Drive for Low-Cost Mass Storage. This portable battery-operated unit uses minicassettes to store programs and data inexpensively for HP-IL systems, by David J. Shelley, William A. Buskirk, Charles W. Gibson, pg 17-24. 82161A.

[Authors:] William [Bill ‘Buzzy’] Buskirk, Charles [Charlie] W. Gilson, David [Dave] J. Shelley, pg 24

Scientific Pocket Calculator Extends Range of Built-In Functions. Matrix operations, complex number functions, integration, and equation solving are only some of the numerous preprogrammed capabilities of HP’s latest scientific calculator, the HP-15C, by Joseph P. Tanzini, Paul J. McClellan, Eric A. Evett, pg 25-35

[Authors:] Paul J. McClellan, Joseph [Joe] P. Tanzini, pg 35

A Pocket Calculator for Computer Science Professionals. This compact, yet powerful pocket calculator is designed for technical professionals working in computer science and digital electronics. Boolean operations and bit manipulation are some of its capabilities, by Eric A. Evett, pg 36-40. HP-16C.

Real [Floating-Point] Format, pg 37

Using the HP-16C, pg 38-39

[Author:] Eric A. Evett, pg 40

June 1983 v.34 n.6

Cover: Magnetic card reader of the HP-75 Portable Computer

A Portable Computer for Field, Office, or Bench Applications. This lightweight, battery-powered computer has features that make it an ideal tool for the traveling professional, by Anthony S. Ridolfo, Donald E. Morris, Donald L. Morris, pg 3-9. HP-75.

A Telephone Interface for HP-IL Controllers. Now you can access a remote computer system from your hotel room or a telephone booth, by Brian G. Spreadbury, Sidnee Snell, pg 5-6. 82168A.

HP-IL and the HP-75 Portable Computer. HP’s interface loop lets the HP-75 control a variety of portable peripherals to store and receive data and print results, by Dennis C. York, pg 8-9

High-Capability Electronics Systems for a Compact, Battery-Operated Computer. Here’s how to pack a computer with an integral display and card reader into a small ESD-resistant package, by Elizabeth Brooks, Timothy F. Myers, Robert J. Livengood, Rex C. Smith, pg 10-15. HP-75.

Packaging a Portable Computer, by Lee S. Mason, Gary G. Lutnesky, pg 12

Electrostatic Discharge Protection for the HP-75, by Gregory J. May, pg 14

Handpulled Magnetic Card, Mass Storage System for a Portable Computer. Behind the elegant, simple design of the HP-75’s internal card reader is some clever engineering work, by Kenneth R. Hoecker, James R. Schwartz, Francis A. Young, Dean R. Johnson, pg 15-23

The HP-75 Production Card Recorder. To supply quality blank and application program cards in quantity is the job of this high-volume, ultra reliable system, by David B. Patton, pg 20-21

Integration of the HP-75’s Handpulled Card Reader Electronics in CMOS. Both analog and digital circuits are on a single IC, by Billy E. Thayer, Thomas J. Arnold, pg 24-26

A New Family of Pulse and Pulse/Function Generators. Here are three compact, easy-to-use instruments with the versatility needed for analog and digital applications over wide frequency and amplitude ranges , by Helmut Rossner, Uwe Neumann, Michael Fleischer, pg 27-32. 8116A, 8111A, 8112A.

Feedback Amplifier Has Push-Pull Voltage Output Stage, by Michael Fleischer, pg 30

Designing Bipolar Integrated Circuits for a Pulse/Function Generator Family. The varied capabilities of the three instruments in this family begin with the same three ICs, by Volker Eberle, Stephan Traub, Horst Schweikardt, Christian Hentschel, Adolf Leiter, pg 33-38

Authors June 1983: Donald [Don] E. Morris, Donald [Don] L. Morris, Anthony [Tony] S. Ridolfo, Brian G. Spreadbury, Sidnee Snell, Dennis C. York, Elizabeth [Beth] Brooks, Rex. C. Smith, Robert [Bob] J. Livengood, Timothy [Tim] F. Myers, Francis [Raan] A. Young, Kenneth [Ken] Hoecker, Dean R. Johnson, James [Jim] R. Schwartz, David [Dave] B. Patton, Thomas [Tom] J. Arnold, Billy [Bill] E. Thayer, Michael Fleischer, Helmut Rossner, Uwe Newmann, Christian Hentschel, Stefan Traub, Adolf Leiter, Horst Schweikardt, Volker Eberle, pg 38-40

July 1983 v.34. n.7

Cover: Three views, at progressively finer resolution, of the timing diagram of a RAM

A High-Speed System for AC Parametric Digital Hardware Analysis. This new 50-MHz stimulus-response system is a state-of-the-art tool for comprehensive and rapid characterization of all types of digital circuits, by Andreas Wilbs, Klaus-Peter Behrens, pg 3-7. 8180A/81A/82A.

Parametric Characterization of Digital Circuits, pg 4

A High-Speed Data Generator for Digital Testing. It offers high timing accuracy, precise pulse-level definition, ease of operation, and versatility, by Werner Berkel, Heinz Nussle, Josef Becker, Ulrich Hubner, pg 7-14. 8180A/81A/82A.

High-Speed Data Analyzer Tests Threshold and Timing Parameters. Two innovative features are programmable sampling point delay and real-time compare mode, by Bernhard Roth, Ulrich Schottmer, Martin Dietze, Dieter Kible, pg 14-25. 8182A.

What is Window Comparison?, by Martin Dietze, pg 15

Generation of Analog Voltages, by Bernhard Roth, pg 18

Testing the Key Specification of the 8182A, by Bernhard Roth, pg 20

Interfacing the Device Under Test, by Horst Link, pg 23

Data Analyzer Software/Firmware Design. A skilled task dispatcher makes full use of the interrupt structure of the CPU, by Roberto Mottola, Eckhard Paul, pg 25-28. 8182A.

Power Supplies for the Stimulus/Response System. The objectives were high load current and serviceability within a restricted space, by Ulrich Otto, Horst Link, pg 28-31. 8180A/81A/82A.

New Multi-Frequency LCZ Meters Offer Higher-Speed Impedance Measurements. These instruments, combined with an optional interface and a component handler, make production-line measurements of the impedance parameters of discrete electronic components rapidly and accurately at actual operating frequencies, by Takeshi Kyo, Toshio Tamamura, Tomio Wakasugi, pg 32-38. 4277A, 4276A.

Comparator, pg 34

High-Speed Programmable dc Bias Options, pg 37

History from the Pages of the Hewlett-Packard Journal. A book of articles from past issues is underway, to be titled “Inventions of Opportunity: Matching Technology with Market Needs”, by R. P. Dolan, pg 38

Authors July 1983: Klaus-Peter Behrens, Andreas Wilbs, Werner Berkel, Ulrich Hubner, Josef [Jo] Becker, Neinz Nussle, Ulrich Schottmer, Martin Dietze, Dieter Kible, Bernhard Roth, Roberto Mottola, Eckhard Paul, Horst Link, Ulrich Otto, Takeshi Kyo, Toshio Tamamura, Tomio Wakasugi, pg 39-40

August 1983 v. 34 n.8

Cover: Finstrates (a brand new method of mounting chips)

VLSI Technology Packs 32-Bit Computer System into a Small Package. The new HP 9000 Computer is a compact, highly capable 32-bit computer system that incorporates five very dense integrated circuits made by a highly refined NMOS process, by S. Dana Seccombe, Eugene R. Zeller, Joseph W. Beyers, pg 3-6

Acknowledgments: Bringing these complex technologies to production in late 1982 was the result of the determination and dedication of many people, pg 6

An 18-MHz, 32-Bit VLSI Microprocessor. This NMOS IC contains over 450,000 transistors, by Mark E. Hammer, Darius F. Tanksalvala, Kevin P. Burkhart, Mark A. Forsyth, pg 7-11. 9000.

Instruction Set for a Single-Chip 32-Bit Processor. A stack-oriented design using segmentation forms this command set, by James G. Fiasconaro, pg 9-10

VLSI I/O Processor for a 32-Bit Computer System. this IC uses the same basic circuits as the CPU chip, by Fred J. Gross, Donald R. Weiss, William S. Jaffe, pg 11-14. 9000.

High-Performance VLSI Memory System. This system provides 256K bytes of memory per card and has a bandwidth of 36M byte/s, by Joseph P. Fucetola, Clifford G. Lob, Mark A. Ludwig, Mark J. Reed, pg 14-20. 9000.

18-MHz Clock Distribution System. A clock IC provides buffered two-phase, nonoverlapping clocks, by Clifford G. Lob, Alexander O. Elkins, pg 17

128K-Bit NMOS Dynamic RAM with Redundancy. Extra rows and columns improve chip yield, by John R. Spencer, Dale R. Beucler, John K. Wheeler, Charlie G. Kohlhardt, pg 20-24. 9000.

Polysilicon Link Fusing and Detection Circuit, by Douglas F. DeBoer, pg 23

Finstrate: A New Concept in VLSI Packaging. Finstrate combines a copper fin for heat conduction and dissipation with a multilayer substrate for low-capacitance interconnection between ICs, by Glen E. Leinbach, Jeffery J. Straw, Guy R. Wagner, Arun K. Malhotra, pg 24-26

NMOS-III Process Technology. Refractory metallization, external contact structures,

1.5-mm wide lines and 1.0-mm spaces are used in this VLSI process, by Arun K. Malhotra, S. Dana Seccombe, Fung-sun Fei, James M. Mikkelson, pg 27-30. 9000.

Polysilicon Link Design, by Wiliam C. Terrell, pg 28

Automated Parameter Testing, by Fredrick P. LaMaster, O. Douglas Fogg, pg 29

Two-Layer Refractory Metal IC Process. Tungsten metallization reduces the risk of electromigration failure, by Daniel D. Kessler, Donald E. Novy, Jr., David W. Quint, Norman E. Hendrickson, James P. Roland, pg 30-32

Defect Control for Yield Improvement, by Lawrence A. Hall, pg 33

NMOS-III Photolithography. Step-and-repeat optical lithography, two-layer resist, and pellicles are salient features, by Martin S. Wilson, Keith G. Bartlett, Howard E. Abraham, Gary L. Hillis, Mark Stolz, pg 34-37

Yield Improvement by Use of Pellicles, by Robert Slutz, pg 36

Authors August 1983: Eugene [Gene] R. Zeller, S. Dana Seccombe, Joseph [Joe] W. Beyers, Kevin P. Burkhart, Darius F. Tanksalvala, Mark A. Forsyth, Mark E. Hammer, James [Jim] G. Fiasconaro, Donald [Don] R. Weiss, William [Bill] F. Jaffe, Fred J. Gross, Clifford [Cliff] G. Lob, Mark J. Reed, Joseph [Joe] Fucetola, Mark A. Ludwig, Alexander O. Elkins, Dale R. Beucler, John K. Wheeler, John R. Spencer, Charles [Charlie] G. Kohlhardt, Glen E. Leinbach, Arun K. Malhotra, Jeffery [Jeff] J. Straw, Guy R. Wagner, Fung-Sun Fei, James [Jim] M. Mikkelson, Norman [Norm] E. Hendrickson, Donald [Don] E. Novy, Jr., Daniel [Dan] D. Kessler, David [Dave] W. Quint, James [Jim] P. Roland, Gary L. Hillis, Howard E. Abraham, Mark Stolz, Keith G. Bartlett, Martin [Marty] S. Wilson, pg 37-40

September 1983 v.34 n.9

Cover: A brightly colored space-fantasy and other slides created on the HP 2700

A Color Presentation Graphics Workstation. Here’s a remarkable new workstation family for presentation graphics design, decision support graphics, and graphic art. It features powerful, easy-to-use application software and full block-mode terminal capabilities, by William R. Taylor, Kenneth A. Mintz, Catherine M. Potter, Sharon O. Mead, pg 3-8. 2700.

A System for Creating Graphics Presentations, by John Alburger, Diane Rodriguez, pg 7

ROM/RAM Intrinsics Strategy, pg 8

Designing Software for High-Performance Graphics. It had to offer advanced graphics features and yet be compatible with other HP graphics terminals, by Robert R. Burns, Dale A. Luck, pg 9-14. 2700.

Logic Design for a Graphics Subsystem. Dedicated graphics hardware provides a quick response time, by Craig W. Diserens, Curtis L. Dowdy, William R. Taylor, pg 15-18. 2700.

A High-Resolution Color Monitor. It produces 4096 pure colors and is easy to align, by Paul G. Winninghoff, Mark Hanlon, Geoffrey G. Moyer. 2700.

EMI Entanglements, by Geoff Moyer, pg 19

HP 2700 Power Supply, by Craig Diserens, pg 20

The Graphics Workstation as an Extensible Computer Terminal. The terminal subsystem provides an alphanumeric display, keyboard control, datacom, and local device control, by Thomas K. Landgraf, Stephen P. Pacheco, Paula H. Ng, Otakar Blazek, Edward Tang, pg 22-25. 2700.

A Computer-Aided Test and Tracking System. The test system and the product were designed together, by Charles W. Andrews, Michael R. Perkins, Susan Snitzer, pg 25-28

Product Design of a Friendly Color Graphics Workstation. It doesn’t intimidate the user because of its size, noise level, or apparent complexity, by Badir M. Mousa, Dennis C. Thompson, Kenneth D. Boetzer, Mark A. Della Bona, pg 28-29. 2700.

Display Enhancement, by Bud Mousa, pg 29

HP 2700 Graphics Input Devices, by Bud Mousa, Dennis Thompson, pg 30-31

AUTOPLOT/2700: A Single Approach to Custom Chart Generation. This software will make most of the decisions or leave them to the user, by John M. Perry, Stanley A. Balazer, pg 31-34

PAINTBRUSH/2700: A General-Purpose Picture Creator. Whether novice or expert, the graphic artist can create pictures naturally and interactively, by John R. Alburger, Jim L. Davis, Diane A. Rodriguez, Barbara A. Stanley, pg 34-37

Implementing HP 2700 Applications Software, by Jim Davis, Diane Rodriguez, pg 26

Authors September 1983: Sharon O. Mead, Catherine [Cathy] M. Potter, William [Bill] R. Taylor, Kenneth [Ken] A. Mintz, Dale A. Luck, Robert [Bob] A. Burns, Craig W. Diserens, Curtis [Curt] L. Dowdy, Geoffrey [Geoff] G. Moyer, Paul G. Winninghoff, Mark Hanlon, Stephen [Steve] P. Pacheco, Edward [Ed] Tang, Paula H. Ng, Otakar [Oty] Blazek, Thomas [Tom] K. Landgraf, Michael [Mike] R. Perkins, Charles W. Andrews, Susan [Susie] Snitzer, Mark A. Della Bona, Dennis [Denny] C. Thompson, Kenneth [Ken] D. Boetzer, Badir [Bud] M. Mousa, John M. Perry, Stanley [Stan] A. Balazer, Jim L. Davis, John R. Alburger, Barbara A. Stanley, Diane A. Rodriguez, pg 38-40

October 1983 v.34 n.10

Cover: HP 77020A Ultrasound Imaging System

Ultrasound Imaging: An Overview. By using a beam of ultrasound, it is possible to look at organs and other structures inside the human body without breaking the skin, by Arthur M. Dickey, H. Edward Karrer, pg 3-6

History of HP’s Ultrasound System. Developing this complex system required the contributions of many people at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories and HP’s Andover Division, by John T. Hart, pg 5. 77020A.

An Ultrasound Imaging System. This instrument views the internal organs and tissues of the human body in real time by directing a beam of short ultrasound pulses into the body and then receiving and processing the acoustic echoes to form a displayed image, by Lawrence W. Banks, pg 6-11. 77020A.

Quantitative Analysis for Ultrasound Imaging. This software allows the cardiologist or obstetrician to measure the length and calculate the area or volume of structures displayed by an ultrasound image, by Rachel M. Kinicki, pg 8-9. 77020A.

Authors October 1983: H. Edward [Ed] Karrer, Arthur [Art] M. Dickey, Lawrence [Larry] W. Banks, Rachel M. Kinicki, Richard L. Popp, M.D., John D. Larson III,  David [Dave] G. Miller, George [Tony] A. Fisher, Thomas [Tom] L. Szabo, Gary A. Seavey, Steven [Steve] C. Leavitt, Barry F. Hunt, Hugh G. Larsen, Richard [Jim] J. Conrad, Richard [Rick] A. Snyder, Paul A. Magnin, pg 11-12

A Physician’s View of Echocardiographic Imaging. Effectively applying the advantages of ultrasound imaging to medical diagnosis requires good equipment and training, by Richard L. Popp, M.D, pg 13-16

An Acoustic Transducer Array for Medical Imaging – Part I. The basic design and fabrication constraints are described, by John D. Larson III, pg 17-22

An Acoustic Transducer Array for Medical Imaging – Part II. An equivalent circuit model simplifies the design process, by David G. Miller, pg 22-26

Transducer Test System Design. This automatic system simplifies the measurement of a variety of acoustic and electrical parameters, by George A. Fisher, pg 24-25

Radiated Power Characteristics of Diagnostic Ultrasound Transducers. Accurate measurement of acoustic energy is important in ensuring patient safety, by Thomas L. Szabo, Gary A. Seavey, pg 26-29

A Scan Conversion Algorithm for Displaying Ultrasound Images. Converting acoustic data in polar coordinates to an undistorted display in rectangular coordinates requires a special technique, by Steven C. Leavitt, Hugh C. Larsen, Barry F. Hunt, pg 30-34. 77020A.

Ultrasound Image Quality. Many parameters affect the quality of an ultrasound image, by Richard J. Conrad, Richard A. Snyder, pg 34-38

Coherent Speckle in Ultrasound Images. This phenomenon is often misinterpreted, but with better understanding, could be used to characterize tissue by Paul A. Magnin, pg 39-40

November 1983 v.34 n.11

Cover: Color Business Chart created on a computer

Device-Independent Software for Business Graphics. New programs fortify the electronic office with a choice of graphics interfaces, by Yvonne Temple, pg 3-4. DSG/3000, HPEASYCHART, 17623A, HPDRAW, 2680A.

A Decision Support Chartmaker. Two user interfaces satisfy the needs of both the nonprogrammer and the sophisticated user, by Richard J. Simms, Jr., Janet Elich Morris, pg 5-9. DSG/3000.

An Easy-to-Use Chartmaker. It’s the simplest way for a nonprogrammer to get a professional-looking chart, by Robert W. Dea, Martha Seaver, Richard J. Simms, Jr., pg 10-12. HPEASYCHART.

Convenient Creation and Manipulation of Presentation Aids. Draw figures freehand or choose them from a library, then edit them by point-and-push methods, by Janet Swift, Chayaboon Purnaveja, pg 13-17. HPDRAW.

Graphics Capabilities on a Laser Printer. Printers do text documents and plotters produce graphics but this printer can do the whole job, by William J. Toms, James C. Bratnober, Tamara C. Baker, Gerald T. Wade, pg 17-22. 2680A.

Special Report: The Center for Integrated Systems. Hewlett-Packard is helping to launch a new research facility at Stanford – and a new approach to industry-university relations in the U.S.A, by Frederick H. Gardner, pg 23-30

CIS Research Topics, pg 29

Authors November 1983: Yvonne Temple, Richard [Rich] J. Simms, Jr., Janet Elich Morris, Robert [Bob] W. Dea, Martha Seaver, Janet Swift, Chayaboon [Audi] Purnaveja, Gerald [Gerry] T. Wade, William [Bill] J. Toms, James [Jim] c. Bratnober, Tamara [Tammy] C. Baker, Frederick [Fred] H. Gardner, pg 31-32

Hewlett-Packard Journal Book Now Available: Inventions of Opportunity: Matching Technology with Market Needs, pg 32

December 1983 v.34 n.12

Cover: Fused Silica Columns

Control Hardware for an Ultrasound Imaging System. Coordinating the various subsystems, peripherals, and operator commands for HP’s diagnostic imaging system requires sophisticated controller hardware, by John N. Dukes, Janet R. Accettura, Richard H. Jundanian, pg 3-5. 77020A, 77900A.

Ultrasound System Software. Coordinating the operation of the complex subsystem in HP’s ultrasound imaging system is a comprehensive software system using an internal bus based on the HP-IB, by Joseph M. Luszcz, William A. Koppes, Robert J. Kunz, David C. Hempstead, pg 6-13. 77020A, 77900A, 77200A, 77400A.

Electronic Scanner for a Phased-Array Ultrasound Transducer. This subsystem controls the transmission and reception of ultrasound pulses by 64 transducer elements to scan a 90° sector and collect data for an ultrasound image, by James T. Fearnside, Sydney M. Karp, Ronald D. Gatzke, pg 13-20. 77020A.

A Mixing Scheme to Focus a Transducer Array Dynamically. An architecture based on a common summing delay line eliminates the need for many separate delay lines, by Robert N. McKnight, pg 16-17

Display System for Ultrasound Images. This subsystem collects digital data from ultrasound scanning and physiological waveforms from other amplifiers and processes them for display in a rectangular raster-scan format, by James R. Mniece, Raymond G. O’Connell, Alwyn P. D’Sa, pg 20-28. 77400A, 77020A.

Video Recording of Ultrasound Images, by James R. Mniece, pg 24-25

Authors December 1983: John N. Dukes, Richard [Rich] H. Jundanian, Janet [Jan] R. Accettura, William [Bill] A. Koppes, Joseph [Joe] M. Luszcz, David [Dave] C. Hempstead, Robert [Bob] J. Kunz, James [Jim] T. Fearnside, Sydney M. Karp, Ronald [Ron] D. Gatzke, Robert [Bob] N. McKnight, Alwyn P. D’Sa, James [Jim] R. Mniece, Raymond [Ray] G. O’Connell, Jr., Bruce L. Ryder, Thomas [Tom] J. Stark, Paul A. Larson, pg 28-29

Index: Volume 34 January 1983 through December 1983. PART 1: Chronological Index, pg 30-31. PART 2: Subject Index, pg 31-33. PART 3: Model Number Index, pg33-34. PART 4: Author Index, pg 34.

Fused Silica Capillary Columns for Gas Chromatography. Here’s how collaborative research between HP’s chemical analysis and optoelectronics laboratories created a vastly superior GC column, by Thomas J. Stark, Bruce L. Ryder, Paul A. Larson, pg 35-40

1983 – MEASURE Magazine

January-February 1983 The Road to 1989

  • HP gets award from Calif. Governor’s Committee for Employment of Handicapped. 2
  • HP products behind the scenes at Disneyland, including HP 85 computers; products on display at two park pavilions at Disney’s EPCOT Center. 3-5
  • Yokogawa HP awarded Japanese industry’s highest award, the Deming Prize. 6-8
  • Speculation about the workplace, work force, marketplace as company moves toward fiftieth anniversary in 1989. 9-16
  • HP sales office in Honolulu celebrates tenth anniversary. 18
  • Celebration of shipment of 10,000th HP 3000 computer. 18
  • HP employee uses HP 87 and 9872 plotter to enter computer-generated art in exhibit. 19
  • Seniors who choose to work after age 65. 20-22
  • John Young evaluates operating results for FY82. 23
  • New products include HP 9000 line of 32-bit technical computers; HP 5970A is HP’s first standalone mass-selective detector. 24

March-April 1983 The Maple Leaf: Big, Broad and Colorful — Just Like the Canada it Represents

  • Stanford’s Fred Terman, “father of Silicon Valley” and professor of Hewlett and Packard, dies at 82. 2
  • HP Canadians discuss relationship with U.S. organization and prevalence of U.S. economy on their own sales activities. 3 7
  • Exceptional children of HP people are highlighted. 8 10
  • HP’s biggest product, facility, profit-sharing percentage. 12 13
  • Program to develop long-term relationships with major customers to increase their productivity through computer solutions; Manufacturer’s Productivity Network (MPN) allows companies to link computer applications and resources throughout its organization. 14 17
  • Andover Division starts mini clinical internships for employees who design, market, manufacture division’s products. 18
  • HP 75 used to measure static and dynamic stress factors of da Vinci’s “The Last Supper.” 18
  • Hewlett-Packard Journal, in its 34th year, chronicles HP’s technical accomplishments. 20-22
  • John Young plays leading role in Computer Groups’ major account program. 23
  • Computer Groups is reorganized. 24
  • HP ranks close behind IBM as “most admired” company according to Fortune magazine. 24
  • New products include HP 2627A color graphics terminal, 8180A data generator, 8182A data analyzer, 4955A protocol analyzer, 1630A/D logic analyzer. 24

May-June 1983 A Profile of HP’s President

  • John Young’s first five years as CEO of HP and biography. 3 7
  • HP’s 25th year of growth and history in Europe; one-third of HP sales come from Europe; HP’s senior vice president of international operations, Bill Doolittle, retires. 8 10
  • Visit by Queen Elizabeth to HP’s Cupertino facility. 11
  • Pay-as-we-grow is HP’s policy of self-financed growth rooted in belief that success must be solidly based on performance; policy is a matter of corporate philosophy and is reflected in management practices. 12 15
  • HP replaces part for lung function monitor in Australia in record time. 16
  • HP runners model running gear for Runners Magazine. 16
  • HP matches employee contributions for relief fund for fire victims in Australia. 17
  • HP’s Waltham Division helps community theatre company affected by arson fire. 17
  • HP 250 computer used on containership, the President Lincoln. 17
  • NBC’s Today show host, Jane Pauley, visits HP in Palo Alto. 19
  • Technical training uses interactive video; self-paced learning. 20 22
  • John Young describes changes in HP’s European facilities over the last 25 years. 23
  • Hewlett elected to newly created position of vice chairman of the board. 24
  • New products include Series 200 36C technical computer, model 20 modular instrument controller, 1090 liquid chromatograph. 24

July-August 1983 Programmed for Independence

  • HP employee prevents fraud; saves company $20,000. 2
  • HP’s efforts to improve R&D; recommendations/findings of task force formed in 1981: better tools for engineers, importance of strategic planning, attention to motivation and moral, lack of R&D management training, need for corporate office of engineering. 3 7
  • Computer training for disabled and HP’s involvement in the program in Berkeley, Calif. 8 11
  • New organization chart; changes in Personal Computation Group; broadens responsibilities of Management Council. 12 13
  • Reasons for computer group reorganization. 14
  • Quality and productivity improvements; how HP employees are making the best even better. 15
  • Labs has beer bust to celebrate groundbreaking of new building in Palo Alto. 18
  • HP makes cash grants to non-profit National Energy Foundation to improve science literacy in U.S. 18
  • HP ultrasound equipment used to diagnose heart problem of thoroughbred race horse in France. 19
  • HP 3054A and HP 85 help scientists analyze Venezuela’s sugar cane. 19
  • Measure magazine celebrates twentieth year of publication. 20-21
  • John Young evaluates operating results for first half of FY83. 23
  • HP acquires Canadian firm, Panacom Automation. 24
  • New products include HP 3000 Series 68, 48, 42. 24

September-October 1983 Preparing Tomorrow’s Talent

  • Logic analyzer replaces oscilloscope to measure digital electronic systems. 2
  • Examining HP’s newest Latin American manufacturing plants in Puerto Rico and Mexico; tax incentives primary reason HP came to Puerto Rico along with availability, quality of work force; reason for HP in Mexico was to survive in the Mexican marketplace and its introduction of import restrictions. 3 5
  • Most important factor in sustaining growth is new recruits and new research—-neither produced without considerable investments in facilities, equipment, teachers; HP contributes $23 million in 1983 to universities; HP recruits college graduates. 9 16
  • Success as business connected to customer satisfaction. 13-14
  • HP’s contributions to the space shuttle and space program in general. 15-17
  • HP donates 15 PCs to mobile computer classes for Calif. Schools. 19
  • Focus on branch business managers running HP sales offices. 20-22
  • John Young discusses importance of customer satisfaction. 23
  • HP board declares a two-for-one stock split. 24
  • HP and Genentech announce joint venture company to develop instrumentation and computer systems for bioengineering research. 24
  • John Young named by White House to chair President’s Commission on Industrial Competitiveness. 24
  • New products include HP 7475A graphics plotter, 1347A HP-IB display, HCPL-4100 transmitter, HCPL4200 receiver, 4062A test system, super-bright LED display. 24

November-December 1983 Automation at HP: Will It Be a Friendly Fit?

  • HP replaces 3000 computer of Houston’s Buffalo Business Products after it’s destroyed by hurricane. 2
  • Discussion about the place of automation at HP; wherever robots help produce higher quality, more cost-effective products is where they belong. 3 7
  • HP’s fleet of seven airplanes flies employees to various HP sites; saves time. 8 10
  • HP in Boblingen has eat-now, pay-later computer system in cafeteria. 12
  • HP 41CV handheld computer used in first Brazilian expedition to Antarctica. 13
  • Emphasis on software to make hardware more user friendly and for profitability; acquisition of software written by other companies. 14 16
  • Systems marketing center saves sales force time and frustration by bringing together technical and strategic computer sales support into one organization. 17 19
  • Lucas films uses HP 9826 desktop computer for special effects in “Star Wars” trilogy. 20 21
  • Hamburg sales office year-long public relations effort. 22
  • John Young explains new executive committee, Management Council. 23
  • HP and Yokogawa-Hokushin Electric Corp. agreement increases HP’s percentage of HP-Yokogawa from 49-75 percent. 24
  • New products include new microwave signal generators (8673C, 8673D, 8683D, 8684D), HP 6901S data acquisition and control system, 13 new office automation products; 5890A gas chromatograph. 24

1983 – Packard Speeches

Box 5, Folder 1 – General Speeches, includes correspondence relating to speeches


February 2, 1983, High Technology, High Stakes: An Agenda for the Eighties, Washington D. C.


This speech was presented at a conference entitled High Technology Industries: Public Policies for the 1980s. Packard refers to it as an appraisal of America’s high-technology industries and the competitive challenges they face.


2/2/83, Typewritten text of Packard’s speech.


Packard says he is “gratified” to see the attention high technology has been receiving in a public policy debate. He says “It’s about time.”


“Its about time this country recognized the vital importance of its high technology industries.


“It’s about time we gave a serious appraisal of the competitive challenges faced by U.S. high technology.


“It’s about time we looked at public policies that affect this vital sector of our economy.”


And he adds the thought that he hopes people in Washington D. C, are listening.


Packard says his remarks will focus mostly on the electronics industry, although “…much of what I have to say will apply to all of what we call high-technology – industries characterized by rapid technical innovation and growth.


Packard adds his perspective on just how vital the high technology sector is to the American economy.


“If you were to make a graph for sales of U.S. electronic products, the curve would make a very dramatic upward swing over the past few decades:


$12 billion in 1960

$28 billion in 1970

$113 billion in 1981


“That gives electronics a compound rate of about 15 percent a year – definitely a growth industry. In fact, over the last decade, the growth rate for electronics was twice the rate of growth in our national GNP.”


“In the computer industry, technical advances have resulted in productivity increases of around 30 percent a year. That has meant lower prices and increased performance of computer equipment.”


“Electronics is currently the world’s ninth largest industry. It’s expected to be fourth largest by the end of this decade. In the year 2000, it will rank second in size only to energy.


“In an era where America’s older industries are facing growing competition from abroad, declining sales and growing unemployment, electronics is a real hopeful sector of our economy. Our electronics industry plays a vital role in America’s balance of trade, too. Last year, the industry produced a $10 billion balance of trade surplus for this country, if you exclude consumer electronics.”


“Electronics makes another key contribution to our nation.” he says. “That is the decisive element of superiority it adds to our  military capability. This is a strategic issue we must not overlook.


“So why is this conference being held?, “ he asks. “I believe the answer goes beyond a growing recognition of high technology’s importance. There is increasing concern that we as a country are slipping in our position as world leaders in high technology.


“I’m not happy to say it, but I share that view. There are a number of ways the trend manifests itself:


  • A decline in patents issued for U.S. innovation,
  • A decreasing share of world trade for the U.S. in key high technology areas,
  • A total national expenditure on basic scientific research that has showed little real growth,
  • A shortage of scientists and engineers, and
  • An increasingly strained university and college system for the training of these people.


“These unfortunate trends exist in a wider context, and that is the increasing competition this country faces from abroad in electronics and other high technology sectors.


“Other countries have decided that electronics is a good industry for them to have, too. And they’re doing their best to grab a bigger piece of the action. So our world leadership in electronics is facing a mounting challenge. Japan, France, Great Britain, West Germany, Mexico, Brazil – all have targeted the electronics industry as the sector where they as a nation want to focus their efforts.”


Although believing that not all of these efforts will be successful, Packard sees some “disturbing signs.”


  • “The U.S. has a trade deficit with Japan in consumer electronics that grew from $3.5 billion in 1980 to $6 billion last year.


  • The Japanese have captured 70 percent of the worldwide market for 64K dynamic RAMS, an important building block of advanced electronic products. Right now they have a 60 percent share of the U.S. market for these devices.


  • Japanese export growth in high technology has been greater than 20 percent annually, a greater growth rate than here in the U.S.”


“If we have learned any lesson from rising imports and declining employment in the auto or steel industries, it should be this: We cannot assume that this country does not face competition. We cannot assume that we will automatically retain our leadership position in high technology.


“We must act, and the time to act is now.”


Packard says he is not suggesting that the U.S. adopt “the kinds of direct governmental targeting that are being practiced abroad. What I am suggesting is that this country formulate a national response to the competition we face from abroad. That strategy should be consistent with our own free market system. We should be building on our strengths and buttressing our weak spots.”


Packard sees no simple answer to the problems the U.S. faces. “But we must not be discouraged by the complexity of the issues. Complex problems can be solved – ask any engineer who has designed an electronic device. The hardest thing to do is to define the problem and start tackling it. That task we are doing here today, and I hope we can maintain our forward momentum.”


Referring to a subject discussed earlier in the conference, International Trade and Capital Formation, Packard says he would like to add his thoughts on this issue.

“In international trade, I urge our continued support for open markets both here and abroad. We must resist the impulse to protect high technology from foreign imports. Import controls are counter-productive in the long run. They lead to higher prices for U.S. consumers and less efficient, weaker industries.”


“Let me add my name to the list of those urging our trading partners to remove all non-tariff barriers to high technology trade.”


Packard says he was pleased to see that the conference has also included a discussion of capital formation. Referring to the well known fact that he and Bill Hewlett started HP with a stake of just over $500, he says he is “not so sure we could get by with that sum if we were starting today. High technology industries are becoming increasingly more capital-intensive.


“The cost and availability of capital in this country can put U.S. firms at a real disadvantage compared to their competitors abroad. Several recent studies have shown that capital costs for American firms are higher than those of their international competitors.”


He mentions one study that stated that “capital costs were the greatest single factor that helped the Japanese in their recent incursion into the U.S. market.”


“The recent reduction in the capital gains tax has been helpful. I think we should go beyond this and reduce the capital gains tax to zero for new capital that is actually invested in our industry. This would include venture capital or new issues of stock by any company. This reduction in capital gains tax would apply only to investments which add to capital availability. Capital gains from shares of stock which are already publicly held should continue to be taxed at a  reasonable rate.


“We need to explore this proposal and all the issues of capital formation and growth-oriented tax policies. It would be a real tragedy if all this country’s innovative and entrepreneurial spirit went to waste just because money is expensive and hard to come by.”


Having mentioned entrepreneurial spirit, Packard says he wants to focus the rest of his remarks on “technological innovation and the people who make it happen.”


Packard repeats his earlier statement to the effect that “our national strategy to maintain U.S. competitiveness in high technology should build on our strengths as a nation. The area of technical creativity is this country’s greatest strength.


“America’s technological edge dates from World War II, when the Federal government gave a real boost to scientific research. Governmental support for basic science began right after World War II and continued into the 1950s, when the Office of Naval Research spearheaded major efforts in some of our strong research universities.


“In addition, in the field of electronics, this country benefited from post-war prohibitions on electronics research in Japan and Germany. We had, so to speak, a free hand in the industry for more than a decade.


“Since the beginning of the 1960s, that technological lead has been gradually whittled away. While we still spend a greater percentage of our GNP on research and development than any other country R&D funding is growing faster abroad than it is here. Only industrial spending on R&D has shown any real growth in the past decade. There has been little, if any, real growth in the amount spent on basic research by our government or universities. The sole exception would be research in high energy physics, and this has yet to produce anything useful for our economy.


“We’re not making the most efficient use of our federal research funding, either. Our federal government spent $44 billion on R&D last year. But little of that money went for research in areas that might lead to new, commercial technologies.


“This year, three-fourths of federal R&D funding will be in defense and aerospace. Neither of these areas has produced as much commercial fallout as is often suggested by the departments managing these programs.


“In fact when defense-related funding is subtracted from total U.S. R&D spending, this country actually spends a smaller percentage of its GNP on research than Japan or West Germany.”


And we could get more for our money on what the government does spend on research, Packard contends. “We could do a more effective job of transferring technologies from our federal research laboratories to the commercial sector. That would cost us little or nothing.


“Our more than 700 federal research laboratories  could be made more effective. These labs often have poorly defined research goals. In some cases their goals change directions too frequently. For others, their research goals may have needed revision long ago. In any case, our labs could benefit from sound management principles – well-defined goals, strategic plans to accomplish those goals, and regular re-evaluation of results.


“When Congress reviews the activities of our federal labs, it is on these broad areas it should focus. Too often, Congressional oversight means a line-by-line review of each item on a lab’s budget – an exercise that is far more time-consuming than either Congress or lab staff can afford. The kind of oversight provided or federal labs has resulted in what we call micro-management – many detailed procedural proscriptions and little direction on overall mission for the labs.


Packard says he recently participated in a task force which studied the federal labs and identified “some 2,700 Federal R&D program elements that are considered by 54 different committees and subcommittees of Congress. That means our research scientists are spending a lot of their time researching the intricacies of the Congressional maze. I’m not sure that’s a technology that we could commercialize and sell  abroad.


“Industrial research and development has been the one sector where spending has seen real growth over the last decade. I think that’s a trend we should encourage. The R&D tax credits of 1981 were a move in the right direction and should be renewed when they come up for revision in 1985.


“We should also be looking for ways to make it easier for high technology companies to share the heavy costs of research. We are seeing a number of new vehicles being developed to help pool industry resources. The Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation, the Semiconductor Research cooperative, and the Center for Integrated Circuits at Stanford University are examples.


“As our high technology companies look for ways to collaborate on research – something done widely by our foreign competitors – we must assure them that they can cooperate without fear of being charged with anti-trust violations.


“There is one last arena where we conduct research that I have waited until now to discuss because it is, perhaps the most important. I’m thinking of our universities which have outstanding research programs involving their faculty and graduate students.


“”These universities play a key role because they have two vital functions in our high technology competition. They conduct much of this country’s basic research, and they produce the highly trained technical people this country needs to maintain its lead in high technology.


“Our fine research universities need some help if they are going to continue to provide this country with new technologies and the  people to put them into practice.

“Our universities need better equipment to conduct basic scientific research. It is difficult to create state-of-the art technologies on outdated equipment, and that’s all too many of our universities have.


“Federal support of university research has been declining. The task force I participated in identified several billion dollars of savings in our federal research budget that could be achieved through better management. Those savings should be realized, and a large part of the resulting funds should be channeled to our research universities.


“We also need to look at ways to ease the strain between our universities and the federal government. One way to improve the relationship would be to adopt the National Science Foundation policy on indirect cost reimbursement. We should not be wasting our time and energy on debates over funding formulas.


“There is another reason to be worried about our universities that goes beyond outdated facilities and equipment. Our higher educational system simply does not have the capacity to produce the number of scientists and engineers our country needs to stay ahead of the rest of the world.


“More students now want to pursue technical courses, but must be turned away. There aren’t enough teachers to handle the demand. Right now, more than 1,000 faculty positions in engineering are vacant. Higher wages paid by industry, coupled with the  obsolete equipment I mentioned, are causing some of our most talented technical people to leave careers in teaching and university research. Fewer PhD.s are being granted to American students, and fewer of them are electing to teach.”


“And Packard asks. “Where shall we go if there is no one to teach our future scientists?”


“When I started these remarks I mentioned some trends that I find worrisome. One was Japanese incursions into the high technology market, and another was a shortage of technically trained people. Japan produces two-and-a-half times as many engineering graduates per  capita as we do here. They have recognized that highly skilled people are a prime national resource in the competition for high technology trade. So should we.


“We should be giving our people a better technical grounding for reasons that go beyond the well-being of our high technology industries. The jobs of the future will require technical literacy. We owe it to all our people to ensure that they can enter these new, growing job areas. And there is one last reason we should be making sure our human resources have technical skills: Working in high technology is just plain fun. I can testify to that from experience.”


Packard says he should end his remarks with “some kind of assurance that I know we as a nation are up to the challenges we face from abroad. I believe that America will continue to prevail in the area of high technology.


“I have given you an assurance, but it is a conditional one. The condition is this: That we, as a country, begin to take action now. Let’s not wait around until things are finally bad enough to be almost beyond repair.


“High technology is part of the greatness of America. Let’s keep a picture of that greatness in our mind and dedicate ourselves to maintain it. The ones who benefit most from that vision will be those who will follow in our footsteps.


“Thank you”.


2/1-1/83, Printed copy of the conference program

2/1/83, Typewritten list of biographies of the conference speakers

2/1/83, Draft of a speech to be given at the conference by William C. Norris, Chairman, Control Data Corp., titled Technological Cooperation: a National Priority

2/1/83, Draft of a speech to be given by Senator William V. Roth, Jr., no title

2/1/83, Draft of a speech to be given by Lionel H. Olmer, Under Secretary, International Trade Administration, titled Maintaining U.S. Competitiveness In High Technology

1/15/83, Article reprinted from the National Journal, written by F. Karl Willenbrock, titled Human Resource Needs for High Technology Industry

1/22/83, Reprint of an article in the National Journal written by William K. Krist, Ass’t. U.S. Trade Representative, titled The U.S. Response to Foreign Industrial Policies

1/22/83, Reprint of an article in the National Journal written by Harold E. Fitzgibbons, Director Hambros Bank Ltd., titled A European Perspective on U.S. High Technology Competition

12/18/82, Reprint of an article in the National Journal written by Paul Freedenberg titled U.S. Export Controls: Issues for High Technology Industries

1/1/83, Reprint of an article in the National Journal written by Paul Oosterhuis, Partner, Hogan and Hartson, titled High Technology Industries and Tax Policy in the 1980s

1/8/83, Reprint of an article in the National Journal, written by Robert D. Hormats, Vice President for International Corporate Finance, Goldman, Sachs & Co., titled High Technology Industries and the Challenges of International Competition

10/28/82, Letter to Packard from Anthony C. Stout, Chairman, The Government Research Corporation, inviting Packard to address the conference


1/3/83, Letter to Robert Kirkwood, HP Director of Government Affairs, from Charles P. Heeter Jr. Director Trade and International Affairs, enclosing information pertinent to the conference

1/6/83, Letter to Margaret Paull [Packard’s Secretary],from Barbara Norris Conference Director, discussing hotel arrangements

1/17/83, Letter to Packard from Robert Kirkwood discussing a breakfast meeting of Congressmen to which John Young was invited. Kirkwood asks if Packard could make it.

1/26/83, Letter to Packard from Alan Smith asking for a copy of his speech

1/26/83, Letter to Packard from Anthony C, Stout saying he is delighted Packard has agreed to participate in the conference and discussing arrangements. He encloses a preliminary program

2/11/83, Letter to Packard from Rep. Norman Mineta thanking him for attending the breakfast meeting

2/17/83, Letter to Packard from Anthony C. Stout, Conference chairman, thanking him for participating in the conference



Box 5, Folder 2 – General Speeches


October 25, 1983, Why Not Protectionism,  competing with Japan in the eighties, Cleveland, OH


1/25/83, Text of Packard’s speech. It is handwritten by Packard with the exception of a few pages which appear to be inserted from a typewritten copy of a previous speech.


In discussing competition with Japan, Packard says the issue is “Can we maintain and nurture free trade in this decade or are we going to face an increase in protectionism?”


He says this is an issue that involves “not only bilateral trade with Japan, but multilateral trade of both countries with all the other countries of the world.


“There is very little free trade in the world today and virtually every country has protectionism of one kind or another.


“I want to talk about some of the current trade issues involving the U.S. and Japan, but I thought it might be interesting to remind you of some of the things Adam Smith wrote on the subject. He is considered to be the father  – or at least a most effective advocate of free trade.


Professor E. G. West recently published a book entitled ‘Adam smith and his Words.’ And I want to quote a few excerpts [and Packard inserts about six typewritten pages mainly quoted from Professor West’s book which are digested below]:

‘Adam Smith was born in Scotland in 1723. He went to Glasgow University where he matriculated at the age of fourteen. He lectured in moral philosophy at the University from 1751 to 1763 when he went to France to tutor the Duke of Buccleugh. Returning to Scotland in 1767 he spent most of his time working on The Wealth of Nations. He died in 1790.


‘During Smith’s time protectionism was at its height. Excessive restrictions on trade between England and France [caused them] to divert their trade to the more distant colonies of the two countries.’


‘If those two countries, however, were to consider their real interest, without either mercantile jealousy or national animosity, the commerce of France might be more advantageous  to Great Britain than that of any other country, and for the same reason that of Great Britain to France.’


‘But being neighbors, they are necessarily enemies, and the wealth and power of each becomes, upon that account, more formidable to the  other, and what would increase the advantage of national friendship, serves only to inflame the violence of national animosity.’


‘A nation that would enrich itself by foreign trade, is certainly most likely to do so when its neighbors are all rich, industrious, and commercial nations. A great nation surrounded on all sides by wandering savages and poor barbarians might, no doubt, acquire riches by the cultivation of its own lands, and by its own interior commerce, but not by foreign trade.’


‘The simple fact is, of course, that in normal trade all parties gain, there exist mutual gains from trade.’


Returning to his own text, Packard says that Adam Smith seems to have been fully aware of the difficulties of devising a suitable political framework wherein the beneficial operations of the free market could best operate….the play of individual self-interest can take place not only in the market place but also at the ballot ox and in the political process. These two separate stages of activity give rise to conflict and inconsistency. Acting in their capacity as consumers who accept one product and reject another, individuals constitute a potent through dispersed force making for market efficiency. However, in their capacity of producers, individuals often recognize that, in majority-voting democracies, their self-interest is more effectively promoted by political lobbying to secure special protection and privileges for their particular occupation or trade. This, although as Adam Smith said, ‘The sole end of economic activity should be consumption,’ in practice, because of the particular political framework, the interests of producers often predominate. Hence the following rather pessimistic conclusion of Adam Smith:


‘To expect, indeed that the freedom of trade should ever be entirely restored in Great Britain, is as absurd as to expect that an Oceana or Utopia should ever be established in it. Not only the prejudices of the public, but what is much more unconquerable, the private interests of many individuals, irresistibly oppose it.’


Packard continues, saying, “With sentiments like these, Smith would have been surprised at the extent of the triumph of free trade policies over the next century. He underestimated the power of his own influence and that of other economists to come. Disciples and admirers emerged everywhere. Developing the Scottish professor’s arguments and presenting them with his own particularly devastating kind of wit, the French economist Bastiat, for instance, made a telling onslaught upon entrenched monopoly positions in France. By 1850 Disraeli was confident that ‘Protection is not only dead , but damned.”


“Thus,” Packard continues, “this is not a new subject we are discussing today, although protectionism is not quite dead and not yet measurably damned we have made considerable progress toward Disraeli’s pronouncement in the 133 years since it was made.


“Now I want to remind you of some of the special characteristics of U.S.- Japan trade. The United States is the largest export market for Japanese products accounting for 26% of Japanese exports in 1982. On the other hand, Japan accounted for only 10% of U.S. exports in 1982. Canada, Western Europe, Latin America, other countries in South East Asia and some other important areas – the Middle East, are larger markets for U.S. products than Japan.


“If we look at the bilateral trade between U.S. and Japan there are several things which should be noted. U.S. buys mostly manufactured goods from Japan and sells a very large amount of agricultural products. It has been said that there are more acres in the U.S. producing food for Japan than there are in Japan. The bilateral deficit in trade has been growing rapidly over the last few years.


“In 1982 Japan had a surplus of over $17 billion. Exports from Japan to the U.S. have been growing at the rate of 16% per year while U.S. exports to Japan have been growing at about 9%. The 1983 bilateral trade imbalance is expected to be around $22-24 billion. If this trend continues the deficit will double in 5 years – could reach 50 billion by 1988 or 1989..


“I am fully convinced that the growth of this imbalance must be brought under better control and indeed that is one recommendation made by the U.S.- Japan Advisory Commission to President and Prime Minister and agreed to by both U.S. and Japan.


“I do not mean the bilateral trade should be brought into balance – [but] we will have some real problems if it is allowed to get much larger. $24 billion will provide pay for 2 million jobs at $12,000 per year, and as you all know every direct job has a multiplier of at least two. This means that the 1983 bilateral trade imbalance is costing the United States about 4 million jobs. I say there is a limit to all good things and if this problem is not solved in any other way it will most certainly result in more protectionism of one form or another against imports from Japan.


“I am sure most of you know there are a dozen or so bills now before the Congress, from requiring substantial domestic control in products imported from Japan, to quotas and other protectionist measures. I don’t see how Congressional action could possibly be held off at the 50 billion [level].


“The yen to dollar ratio has been a subject of much discussion recently and is certainly one important factor in U.S. Japan trade competition, not only bilateral but world wide.


“Japan could probably get along in their economy with a yen at 200/$ as well as one at 240/$, which has been the level during most of the year.


“Over 50% of  Japanese imports are from South East Asia, the Middle East and Africa. These are largely for energy and raw materials, and they are paid for largely in $. Japan would be better off if they had to pay only 200 yen for those $ than 240 yen.


“Japan gets these $ by the export of manufactured products and they would end up with fewer yen for each $ they receive but their economy could balance just as well at a 200 yen/$ as at a 240 yen/$. Many in the Japanese business community agree to this and I do not see much concern about bringing the $ down to the 200 yen level except in those industries where industrial product trade is important.


“Even though there is undisputed agreement that we and Japan would be better off with the yen around 200, 180 would be even better. And even though it is quite likely that many of our other trade problems would be much more manageable with a yen at 200 or below the question is how to get there.


:”High U.S. interest rates and the prospect of high interest rates continuing over the next few years, because of the prospect of very large U.S. federal deficits continuing for several years, is certainly a major cause of the strength of the $ against the yen and most other currencies.


I believe that if the Congress and the Administration knew how many jobs the strong dollar and high interest rates are costing in the United States something might get done. If one includes our total export trade and several key areas such as housing and automobile finance – failure to reduce the Federal Deficit is costing us at least 6 million U.S. jobs.


“Some people have accused Japan of manipulating the yen but I see no evidence of that. There are some things Japan can do to strengthen the yen and I hope the forthcoming meeting between President Reagan and Prime Minister Nakasone will result in some helpful action.


“I mentioned agriculture as an area where the U.S. has substantial exports to Japan – $6-8 level. Agriculture is also one of the most highly protected areas in the Japanese economy.


Let me give you some figures:


Rice $/cwt       54.7 – 21.8

Wheat $/bu      20.2 – 5.3

Soybeans $/bu 31.4 – 7.2


$/bu     16.6 – 3.3


I don’t have figures for beef, citrus, and other important agriculture products but the U.S. – Japan Advisory Commission has a research project underway to help understand this problem and see what if anything can be done about it. In effect, the Japanese consumer is subsidizing Japanese Agriculture to the extent of between $3- 4 billion annually.


“Japan has taken several actions to encourage the increased import of U.S. industrial products. And Prime Minister Nakasone has encouraged Japanese industry to do more. I think it will probably be possible to generate some increase in the export of U.S. industrial products to Japan but I do not see any great break-through.


“The fact is that Japanese industry is fiercely competitive  – puts a high emphasis on quality and service, and U.S. customers are buying more products simply because they are better or cheaper or both. I do not believe this is the result of their Industrial Policy, although it probably has been of some help in certain areas.


“The Japanese do have some real advantage in labor costs. [Over the ]Last five years or so [they have had] less inflation and better control of wages.

[Note to himself to] Describe YHP wage situation.


Also, large scale use of cottage industries and sub-contractors. Japanese Farmers [receive] 25% [of their] income from farm products, and 75% from part time work.


We can not expect them to change these practices and it would be impossible to expect U.S. labor to accept pay reductions.


“American industry is recognizing some of the advantages of Japanese emphasis on quality – more quality circles in the U.S.


“Not very effective yet – HP DRAM purchases – quality, service, price – 80% to Japan.


“There are a number of industry to industry consultations going on: steel, automobiles, semiconductors. Not always successful but should be encouraged.


“Industrial Policy. Micro and macro.


“Japanese example on micro policies not adaptable to U.S.. We are not organized to operate that way. We have had some very bad examples. The Mansfield Amendment on R&D, the Brooks law on DOD computer purchases. There are some things we can and should do in many areas:




Capital formation


Better communications between business and government


“In summary, we are facing a very difficult and very complex problem in foreign trade, and U.S. Japan trade is a very important part.


“I hope we can work together to find solutions – it will take patience and understanding.


“The alternative [is] to go to more protectionist actions [which] would in the long run do economic damage to both the U.S. and Japan. And would have a dangerous impact on our long range relationships. As two of the most important nations of the world that must continue to work together as friends, not only through the decade of the 1980s, but through many decades ahead including those in the next century.”




10/25/83, Copy of printed program for the seminar

6/29/83, Letter to Packard from T. Dixon Long, Western Reserve College, and Emory C. Swank, President, Cleveland Council on World Affairs, asking to present the keynote speech on the topic of ‘Why Not Protectionism?’

A draft of the program is attached.

7/14/83, Letter to Packard from Messrs. Long and Swank, saying they are pleased he has agreed to speak at their seminar.

7/22/83, Copy of a letter from Packard to Emory Swank sending biographic material

8/18,83, Letter to Packard from E. M. de Windt, Chief Executive Officer, Eaton Corp. suggesting he spend the evening before the seminar at Eaton House where they have scheduled a working breakfast for the principle speakers and staff. He also invites Packard to dinner the evening before.

9/19/83, Letter to Packard from Emory Swank asking for the time of Packard’s arrival so they can meet him

9/30/83, Letter to Packard from Professor Yoshi Tsurumi who will also speak at the seminar enclosing some material relevant to his presentation.

10/24/83, Letter to Packard from E. M. de Windt, saying he will meet him at 6 P.M. and he attaches a list of the dinner guests and a copy of the program for the seminar

11/4/83, Letter to Packard from Emory Swank, thanking him for speaking at their seminar. He encloses a check of $500 honorarium.

11/7/83, Business card from Emory Swank enclosing a photograph taken of people at the seminar

11/8/83, Copy of a letter from Packard to Emory Swank returning the honorarium check suggesting they use the money for future programs on Japan



Box 5, Folder 3 – General Speeches


November 21, 1983, AEA 40th Anniversary Dinner, The Challenge Ahead, Santa Clara, CA November 21, 1983  In view of the founding role both Packard and Hewlett

played in the start of WCEMA – WEMA – AEA they were both asked to give their perspectives on the challenge ahead


11/21/83, Copy of Packard’s remarks handwritten on 3×5” cards


Packard says he wants to give a brief report on the U.S.-Japan Commission.


“U.S. – Japan relations are important – two longest economies


“Partnership important for security of Western Pacific


“They will continue to be tough competitors but must avoid protectionism


“Fifty years ago Bill and I, were seniors at Stanford. The outlook was not very promising. Few jobs


“Bill and I had no grandiose plan


“Job at GE paid $90 a month, janitor $.25/hour, gas 10 cents, suit $25, room and board $30, car $600-$700.


“Japan had invaded China.  No feeling that the U.S. was international


“If someone had predicted in 1933 all of the exciting things that were going to happen in the next 50 years, and I would be involved in some part of it, I would have [thought it] a fairy tale.


“Without any doubt [the] next 50 years will be just as exciting.


“One can see only a few years ahead at best – for our industry.


“Computers and data products [will]continue growth


“Software limited

“Many years of growth without new technology. It has become an all electronic world – electronics cheaper, more capable, more reliable.


“Robots – Japan has 8000, will have 20,000 by 1985 – U.S. not far behind


“Genetic engineering. The new field of opportunity.


“Already great growth in health care – 48 years [was the] life span in 1900, now it is 72 – for a child born today, 83. The life span will continue to increase. Already human growth hormone interferon – drugs to improve memory.


“It is quite likely that the rate of aging can be reduced and a life expectancy of 150 years is not out of the question.


“Space will be an area of opportunity – manned space station – the ultimate clean room, high vacuum, zero gravity, no contamination. Material from noon or asteroids. Planning is being done on moon station.


“Energy has been a subject of great interest and activity. Fossil fuels will be around but sometime in the next fifty years nuclear energy will be recognized as the only and a better source.


“The nuclear technology will be either fusion of some type of breeder reactor. In the short term, high temperature gas cooled reactors.

“Military weapons will continue to be increasingly electronic – U.S. superiority will prevail.


“I suppose most of you watched ’The Day After’ last night. Unfortunately there is no possible alternative to deterrence of nuclear war by the policy of assured mutual destruction.


“An extensive study has just been completed which indicates that it may be possible to build an effective defense against nuclear missiles and next year’s budget will have funding to begin work on nuclear missile defense.


“Industrial policy- What can be done to improve the future of our industry?


  1. Education
  2. Research and development
  3. Capital formation
  4. Regulatory process


“The next 50 years will be as full of challenge, excitement and opportunity  [as the last 50 years].”


11/21/83, Copy of printed program for the AEA 40th Anniversary Dinner and 1983 Annual Meeting

11/21/83, Copy of printed invitation to the dinner

10/11/83, Letter to Packard from Ed Ferrey, President of AEA, confirming their invitation to speak at the dinner.

11/4/83, Copy of a letter to Ed. Ferrey from Lewis Howard saying he will not be able to make it to the dinner.

11/11/83, Letter to Packard from Ed. Ferrey giving information about the dinner and guests. He encloses a Pamphlet titled AEA’s Statement of Purpose and Objectives

11/18/83, Letter to Packard enclosing a list of people who have accepted an invitation to attend the dinner

11/25/83, Letter to Packard from Ed. Ferrey thanking him and Bill Hewlett for speaking at the dinner. He includes this statement: ‘Over the years I have heard you speak from a number of platforms, but in my opinion your message this leek was the most interesting and most meaningful speech you have given to an audience of electronics executives.’

9/26/30, Copy of a special report – Mission to Japan.

11/22/83, Newspaper clipping from The Peninsula Times covering the dinner.

1983 – Hewlett Speeches

Box 3, Folder 41 – General Speeches


April 6, 1983 – “Productivity,” HP Productivity seminar, Philadelphia, PA

This was seminar, organized much like a trade show. Some 2100 people showed up for HP’s series of presentations.


4/6/83, Outline of speech handwritten by Hewlett


Hewlett says it might be interesting to hear how they, at HP, got into a productivity network and computer use.


He explains that for many years HP was purely an  instrument company, but they found they were having increasing pressure to automate their instruments to control and then reduce data.


He says that in response to this need they “started a line of computers that were rugged – could take the same class B environment as instruments: temperature, line voltage, vibration, and shock. Such computers were not common at that time of ‘hot-house’ computers.” They quickly found that these computers had many uses beyond  instrument control.


“Shortly afterwards,” Hewlett says “they developed a scientific desk top calculator on the rationale that we could sell it to our scientific base customers – actually because we thought it would be fun to do. The pocket [calculator] followed on the same basis.


“After a period of time these products began to have important spin-offs.”


Began to use the mini-computer in many plant wide applications

1)    First, a simple air conditioner controller

2)    Then, machine tool loads


As proficiency with computers grew Hewlett says they began to recognize that they had many more applications other than that of a control room computer.


1) Major system based on dedicated computer:

a)  Computer to computer dial up data entry

b)    Parts inventories

c)     Order processing automation


Uses of desk top calculators in Europe


1)    Advanced units much easier to use for the uninitiated than the former computers with their rigid language structure.

2)    The fact that they were selling more calculators in Europe than in the U.S. caused them to realize the great advantage of the individual but powerful workstation


Hewlett says, “It began to dawn on us that we were smack in the middle of a productivity program and that we had the proven bits and pieces to put such a system together. Further, that most of the necessary basic R&D had already been carried out – not under the heading of a formal R&D account, but carried out and paid for by the various users in the company.


“It was then, and only then, that we began a formal program of documenting and exploiting the particular niche in which we found ourselves.


“What you see and hear at this conference is the result of this effort. These were developed as user-based systems and we very much consider them as such. We solicit your comment and help, for your problems are our problems, and vice versa.


“We clearly see a recognition of the fact that we are both an instrument and a computer company.  The automated lab is one example and the other is the internal use of the computer for our own manufacturing operations:

a)     The next bench syndrome repeated.

b)    The best salesmen we have are our own people, using computers in manufacturing and office management operations.

c)     This is a field we are comfortable in.


4/6/83, Copy of newspaper clipping about the seminar



Box 3, Folder 42 – General Speeches


May 19, 1983 – Ground breaking ceremony, Center for Integrated Circuits, Stanford University, CA


5/19/83, Copy of the typewritten text of Hewlett’s remarks


Hewlett says that the “venture we see taking shape here reminds me of my own good fortune as a first-hand witness to so many of the developments in the field of electronics.”


He tells how, forty years prior, radio tubes, and even simple light bulbs, were used in the design of electronic circuitry. “Then tubes begat transistors; transistors begat printed circuits; printed circuits begat integrated circuits, and so on.”


“Integrated Systems technology,” he says, “is a logical and natural extension of this genealogy. It represents the vertical integration of the semiconductor and systems technologies. Among the small number of universities pursuing this integrated technology, Stanford has shown itself to be outstanding. A notable example is the early application of integrated technology to new medical and rehabilitation devices, such as the optical-to-tactile reading aid for the blind. The Center for Integrated Systems is a commitment to -–and an affirmation of faith in – the belief that joint, coordinated research is the key to the computer of the future and its applications.”


He says CIS is a consortium of 19 major U.S. corporations that have joined Stanford University “to undertake basic and applied research across a broad spectrum of disciplines. These range from semiconductor materials to software for dataprocessing systems. Initially, each sponsoring company has pledged $750,000 toward the construction of the new CIS building. Annual contributions of $100,000 each in partial support of CIS research programs are expected. Further, each sponsor has been invited to send one full-time visiting researcher to the CIS to lend technical support.”


Hewlett describes the physical building, which will house CIS: 70,000 square feet of floor space, including 10,000 of clean rooms for research on large-scale integrated systems. He says the Center will be a “very clear and distinct answer to three of the major problems faced by the United States. First is the failure of our national programs of basic research to keep pace with the needs of our universities and our industries. The second is the need to strengthen our system of education. And the third is the challenge to U.S. trade and technology posed by a number of foreign countries.” He reviews each of these.



Hewlett says for many years America had the reputation as being a “fountainhead of innovation.” And, during the 19th and early 20th centuries the private sector was the stream of innovation – with individuals and business organizations exploring the frontiers of science and utilizing the products of technology.


The role of government as a “massive and then dominant factor in research,” Hewlett says, “grew out of the experiences of World War II. To undertake the various jobs of defense and national security required huge outlays of money and manpower that only a national government could muster.”


The government naturally turned to universities as a source of talent, and ultimately the government became the chief provider of funds for academic research. Industry’s contribution, on the other hand, has been quite modest, according to the National Science Foundation. Hewlett  says industry has contributed “only from 4 to 6 percent of total academic research and development funding …during the years 1960 to 1981.”


Hewlett  points to a National Science Foundation report that shows a trend of significant increases in R&D spending in Japan, West Germany, France and the United Kingdom. Considering the interrelationships of technology and productivity, “some of these countries may surpass the U.S. in productivity if present trends continue,” he says.




Hewlett points to the “distressing problem” of the rule in the U.S. that companies must play on a “level field” – a one-on-one match between competing firms. On he other hand, some foreign countries, as a mater of national policy, become partners with industry. Powerful alliances are formed, cartels encouraged, R&D subsidized, exports subsidized.


“This makes quite a different ball game,” Hewlett says, and he gives some examples: The Boeing Aircraft Company in the U.S. is facing competition from the European Airbus. “Airbus Industries,” he says, “formed by the governments of six European nations, has been highly successful in establishing a major market position. The infusion of large sums of money over an extended period is its chief source of strength. Airbus promotion has included reported economic inducements beyond favorable financing. Examples are landing rights, trade concessions, subsidy to cover airline operating loss, and military equipment. This meant government-to-government negotiations to secure directed procurement of the national airlines to buy Airbus.”


“The government of France has nationalized many of the key industries of that country. The question arises: What will be the terms and conditions for a private-sector company that attempts to compete against these nationalized firms? And what kinds of subsidies will be available to the nationalized firms when competing abroad?”


Another example he gives is in Japan. “Japan,” he says, “represents a clear example of a national commitment to specific industrial goals. One by one, it has targeted major sectors of the international market for sale of its auto, steel, consumer electronics and now computer products. Never before has the world seen such a concerted marshaling of national resources in the name of international trade. To date they have been outstandingly successful with this strategy.”


“It is clear, however,” Hewlett says, “that a response in kind to these and other examples would be contrary to the U.S. tradition of free enterprise and our laws governing competition. I am convinced that our anti-trust laws on the whole have been beneficial to U.S. industry. However, these laws need to be reviewed from time to time in light of changing conditions. In fact, the government has recognized this problem, and the department of commerce has just recently issued new guidelines that exempt shared research projects from anti-trust prosecution, providing they meet certain guidelines.”


Hewlett says CIS is “just such a venture, and one that meets the guidelines of the Commerce Department. More than that it is an imaginative response to the three problems I mentioned: the inadequacy of U.S. spending on basic research, the need to strengthen the educational system, and the deterioration of our competitive position in international trade.”



Beyond the benefits of cooperative ventures like CIS, Hewlett says “industry must also take a more direct and active role in solving problems of educational resources. Foremost among these problems is the declining capacity of U.S. colleges and universities to develop the professional skills that will be needed in many technical fields in the years ahead.


“Two years ago, for example, an American Electronics Association survey of members indicted  major shortfall of graduates in future years. The surveyed firms projected a need of from 10,000 to 25,000 more graduates than our colleges and universities expect to produce.


“Part of the problem is in the shortage of funds to provide adequate faculty salaries. Most recent estimates place the engineering faculty shortage as one in ten, with even larger gaps for some of the more specialized technologies.”


Hewlett sees ways that industry can help. “One is to provide incentives that will make such faculty positions more attractive and competitive. As an example, Hewlett-Packard Company has committed $6 million to develop new electrical engineering and computer science faculty at 22 selected universities between 1982 and 1987.


“The program, developed jointly with the American Electronics Association, is designed to redirect the career interest of some superior students toward academia instead of industry. Its specific objective is to develop university faculty members, not Ph.D. graduates who will then be recruited by industry.”


“Finally, our pre-college education system is clearly in deep trouble with regard to the teaching of sciences and mathematics. A 1982 survey disclosed shortages of high school teachers of math, chemistry and physics in most of our states. Other studies tell us that the graduates of our secondary schools have fallen behind their counterparts of a number of other countries in quantitative skills and in understanding of science.”


“Let me conclude by offering my heartiest congratulations to the Board of Trustees of Stanford University, the sponsoring companies, and especially the co-directors –Professor John Linville and Professor James (Jim) Meindl – for your faith and support in bringing CIS so close to reality. Thank you.”




Box 3, Folder 43 – General Speeches


September 14, 1983 – “The Full Circle: Science Education and the Liberal Arts,” Oakland, CA


9/14/83, Copy of typewritten text of speech. Hewlett, a former trustee of Mills College, received the honorary Doctor of Laws degree and gave the following speech:


Hewlett says he wants to provide some historical background on the difficulty of  establishing education in the sciences in the early 19th century, and how, once established, it recognized the essential nature of liberal education. “Now,” he says, “the circle is closed, and liberal arts needs to recognize the generality of science.”


Hewlett says he was stimulated  to study the growth of science education by a book he came across some years earlier called ‘Technology and the Academics,’ by Eric Ashby, wherein Ashby described the difficulties in introducing science education into the universities of England. Hewlett says he will base much of his introduction to the subject on the problems in England since “many of the techniques used to solve these problems found their way into this country.”


Based on Ashby’s book, Hewlett says the English universities in the 19th century had little interest in science – somewhat better in Scottish schools. The situation was better on the continent – scientific inquiry flourished in France. Students from abroad came to Germany to study the new emphasis on science.


By the mid to late 1800s Hewlett says the “British began to realize that a knowledge of science was in the national interest if England was to continue its dominant position in the field of manufacturing. Darwin’s Origin of the Species, published in 1859, generated a tremendous interest in England…an interest that sparked the final effort for an introduction of science into higher education.”


Hewlett says “Education in the United States in some ways tracked what was happening in England. Of the three oldest colleges in the U.S., Harvard and Yale were founded primarily for the training of ministers…. The general level of education was low.”


In the 19th century, pressure rose for some technical education in the U.S. Hewlett describes how, “in response to this need, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology was founded in 1859, and was modeled after the English technical institutes. Thirty-five years earlier, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute had been founded in upper New York state and was modeled after the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris. In 1847, Lawrence Science School was founded and 25 years later, was incorporated into Harvard as the Graduate school of Applied Science.”


“U.S. education was strongly influenced by parallel developments in England and on the continent, modified to fit its own needs.” Science had been established as an essential component of higher education.


“By the end of the first World War it became apparent that some element of liberal education should be required in the purely technical schools. In the mid-thirties, John Buchard set up a department of Humanities at MIT….A second step had been taken and science now firmly established, began to move back towards liberal education.


“ The final step is now upon us – the recognition that science education is an essential part of any liberal education.” To expand on this thought Hewlett talks about the computer. “I chose this subject,” he says, “because of its high visibility, but one must remember that a computer is only a product of science. In discussing computers and education, I am not talking about computer aided education, but the actual use [of  computers] by students themselves.


“The uses in undergraduate education are diverse and hard to define,” he says. “The library is one of the first possible applications where a terminal can easily replace the old card file, but its uses are far more general. I inquired at Stanford about undergraduate usage, and to my surprise found that 20% of undergraduate computer time was used by students in the Humanities and Social Sciences. I was also informed that there is an increasing demand for computers as word processors, obviously for reports and term papers. For one of the new dormitories, serious consideration is being given to providing a terminal for each student.


“Graduate usage of computers is more obvious, particularly as a research tool. Most areas of research can make effective use of computers for such purposes as the study of ancient and modern languages to statistical studies in social sciences, for management of research libraries to printing texts prepared in such fonts as Greek and Cyrilic. [sic]


Hewlett says “The role of science in a liberal arts college should not be to turn out professional chemists or physicists. The role of science teaching should be to provide students with sufficient knowledge of science to allow them to make their own judgments and not to depend solely on others.“


“If science is essential, how do we go about introducing it into liberal arts education,” Hewlett asks. He sees two parts to this problem one related to primary and secondary schools, and the other related to the college and university structure. “Our secondary school structure has been deteriorating for 20 years,” he says. “It is indeed a disaster. We are not going to correct it overnight. I will not dwell further on this subject, but I am reminded that all my children went to Palo Alto High School, which had a fine science department. When the old science teacher retired, the football coach replaced him.


“At the college level, I am convinced that some form of basic science must be required of all students. This may not be greeted with uniform enthusiasm. I did not enjoy taking western civilization, but nonetheless, I think these basic courses must be introduced. In general, science teaching should be designed to stress the basic laws that govern the way the physical world operates. To achieve this, certain tools are necessary. Mathematics is one of them. If a Freshman is deficient in math, perhaps there should be a course in ‘dumb-bell’ math, but please don’t call it that. A second would be a working knowledge of statistics, for example, one should know why using the average of averages can lead to serious errors.


“And finally, why am I discussing science in a liberal arts college to such a diverse group – freshmen to seniors, graduate students and faculty and guests in general? For the entering classes, the purpose is obvious. For the upper classes, a warning of future needs should be evident. For the guests, a reminder that in this day and age, there is no end to learning. Once it was thought that after having received a degree from a college or university, studies were over. We can no longer rest on this concept. Education must be viewed as a current and never ending process.”


9/14/83, Copy of the Convocation Program



Box 3, Folder 44 – General Speeches


November 21, 1983 – AEA 40th Anniversary Remarks, Location not given


11/21/83, Copy of typewritten text of talk with handwritten notes by Hewlett


Looking back forty years Hewlett recalls the early days of the organization that was to become AEA [American Electronics Association]. “That group had a membership of 25 companies,” he says. “The Hewlett-Packard Company had 45 employees, the transistor, the integrated circuit, and the microprocessor had yet to be invented. Computing was in its infancy, and Dave Packard and I were a whole lot younger.


“Today, the American Electronics Association is celebrating its fortieth anniversary with 2400 member companies representing one-and-a-quarter million people.


“And the Hewlett-Packard Company has 72,000 employees worldwide.


“The transistor, the integrated circuit, the microprocessor and a host of other advances in electronics technology have revolutionized the way the world works, plays, and communicates. Computers and computational devices have entered every aspect of modern life.


“And Dave and I are a bit older.”


Surmising that many people may be wondering what lies ahead, reflecting the uncertainty of the times, Hewlett says newspaper headlines can give the impression of  “a bubble bursting. Some companies are quitting the home computer business, and others are filing for bankruptcy. Some companies are reporting slower growth and disappointing earnings, and others are announcing staggering losses. And that sensitive barometer, the stock market, has reflected the uncertainty by a volatile treatment of electronic stock prices.”


Seeing that people are worried about competition from abroad, particularly from the Japanese, Hewlett says “I don’t think it would be amiss to say that perhaps, as we celebrate forty years together, we might be asking ourselves whether we can face the next decades with any kind of confidence. I think we can.”


In considering the future, Hewlett, reviews the past. He says the electronics industry has a “solid record of innovation, of making it easier, faster, and less costly to perform a task using electronics technology.”


He cites the electronic calculator as an example. He says that when they first introduced the HP-35 pocket calculator, they would have been pleased to sell ten thousand of them in the first year. Actually they sold over a hundred thousand that first year. “And within five years,” he says, “a product that had never been dreamed of before had completely supplanted one of the one of the basic tools of the engineer – the slide rule.


“Our industry’s history is filled with stories like this. It has been an ongoing process of using innovation to make our products more powerful, less costly, and easier to use. The result of our efforts has been tremendous growth and the movement of electronic technology into all areas of our lives – into our factories, our offices, our hospitals, our schools, and into many of the products we use in our homes.”


Hewlett feels the Japanese challenge is overrated. “They’re tough competitors, to be sure,” he says. “But we do drive the technology. Even where they have been successful, we were the initiators of the technology – VLSI, robotics, statistical quality control. They benefited from our oversight, not from any basic weakness on our part. The Japanese presence in our markets should be welcomed for forcing us to focus on creating real value, not speculative value. We are fully capable of matching their record for quality and I believe we are entering a new dawn of productive labor-management relations.”


He urges everyone to get “a firm grasp on our strengths. As a country, we’re financially strong. We understand marketing in a way few nations do. We are the world leaders in technology, and we can maintain that strong technical position if we keep our eyes on the ball.”


He lists some action items: “Use the R&D tax credits for increased investment in research. Let’s scrutinize our own research carefully and not let other nations benefit from our oversights. Let’s continue our support of collaborative research vehicles like Stanford’s Center for Integrated Systems. And let’s continue our support for engineering education and the maintenance of a strong basic research capability at our nation’s universities.”


Returning to the AEA, and the value the umbrella it has provided to all members, Hewlett says “Whether the subject is increased R&D tax credits or engineering education, the AEA has spoken out both effectively and in a timely manner. We have all benefited from its credibility and its hard efforts on our behalf. We’re not just celebrating forty years this evening. We’re celebrating forty years of solid accomplishment and the knowledge that the best years are yet to come.


“Thank you”


11/10/83, Memo from public relations person Katie Nutter, to Hewlett, transmitting a draft of this speech.