1991 – HP Journal Index

February 1991 v.42 n.1

Cover: Superimposed on a photograph of the optical modulator are a simulated light beam (blue) and microwave energy (yellow) interacting in the modulator (green region) to produce a modulated light beam, represented by a wavy blue line.

High-Speed Lightwave Component Analysis to 20 GHz. A new family of instruments – analyzer, test set, sources, receivers, and modulator – characterizes electrical, electrooptical, and optical components of fiber optic communications systems at modulation rates to 20 GHz, by Daniel R. Harkins, Paul R. Hernday, Roger W. Wong, pg 6-13. 8703A, 83420A, 83421A, 83422A, 83423A, 83424A, 83425A.

Design of a 20-GHz Lightwave Component Analyzer. The HP 8703A is a fully integrated and calibrated instrument for lightwave component characterization. It offers a choice of wavelengths and laser types, both internal and external, by Paul R. Hernday, Geraldine A. Conrad, Michael G. Hart, Rollin F. Rawson, pg 13-22. 8703A.

Measurement Capabilities of the HP 8703A Lightwave Component Analyzer and the HP 71400C Lightwave Signal Analyzer, by Jack Dupre, Roger Wong, pg 17-18

20-GHz Lightwave Test Set and Accessories. With this lightwave test set and a compatible HP microwave network analyzer, users have the same key 20-GHz lightwave component analysis capabilities as with the integrated HP 8703A analyzer. The microwave network analyzer can still be used for its normal functions, by Joel P. Dunsmore, John V. Vallelunga, pg 23-33. 83420A.

Accuracy Considerations and Error Correction Techniques for 20-GHz Lightwave Component Analysis. An understanding of factory calibration techniques, system capabilities, and device-under-test sensitivities can result in more accurate and repeatable measurements using the HP 8703A lightwave component analyzer, by Daniel R. Harkins, Michael A. Heinzelman, pg 34-40

Development of an Optical Modulator for a High-Speed Lightwave Component Analyzer. The design and characterization of the first integrated optic modulator for commercial instrument application are described, including the advantages of titanium-in-diffused lithium niobate, device geometries for both phase modulators and Mach-Zehnder intensity modulators, stability considerations including bias drift and acoustic resonances, wavelength sensitivity, packaging and pigtailing, reliability and testing, by David J. McQuate, Roger L. Jungerman, pg 41-45. 8703A.

A High-Performance Optical Isolator for Lightwave Systems. This compact, rugged, two-stage design uses birefringent rutile crystals and Bi-YIG films to achieve high isolation, low insertion loss, high return loss, and polarization independence, by Harry Chou, Kok-Wai Chang, Siegmar Schmidt, Wayne V. Sorin, Jimmie L. Yarnell, Steven A. Newton, pg 45-50

A Broadband, General-Purpose Instrumentation Lightwave Converter. Converting lightwave signals with wavelengths of 1200 to 1600 nanometers to electrical signals, this device serves as an optical front end for spectrum analyzers, network analyzers, bit error rate testers, and oscilloscopes, by Christopher M. Miller, Roberto A. Collins, pg 51-57. 11982A.

A Lightwave Multimeter for Basic Fiber Optic Measurements. This new instrument can replace separate optical power meters, dedicated loss test sets, and stable light sources for measurements of absolute power, relative power, and loss, by Bernd Maisenbacher, Wolfgang Reichert, pg 58-63. 8153A.

Design of a Series of High-Performance Lightwave Power Sensor Modules. The power sensor modules for the HP 8153A lightwave multimeter feature a new optical interface, new detectors, an analog-to-digital converter based on a voltage-to-frequency converter, and a custom gate array. They offer excellent absolute accuracy and fast autoranging, by Jochen Rivoir, Emmerich Muller, Horst Schweikardt, pg 63-69

Calibration of Fiber Optic Power Meters. This paper describes the proposed IEC standard and HP’s implementation, by Christian Hentschel, pg 70-72

Semiconductor Laser Sources with Superior Stability for Optical Loss Measurements. Temperature stabilization and output power control provide excellent stability in the plug-in laser source modules for the HP 8153A lightwave multimeter, by Frank A. Maier, pg 73-76

Lightwave Multimeter Firmware Design. Flexibility and modularity were challenges in the firmware development of the HP 8153A lightwave multimeter. Built-in applications software automates many commonly needed measurements, by Wilfried Pless, Michael Pott, Robert Jahn, pg 77-83

Authors February 1991: Roger W. Wong, Paul R. Hernday, Michael [Mike] G. Hart, Rollin [Fred] F. Rawson, Geraldine [Gerry] A. Conrad, Joel P. Dunsmore, John V. Vallelunga, Daniel [Dan] R. Harkins, Michael [Mike] A. Heinzelman, David [Dave] J. McQuate, Roger L. Jungerman, Kok-Wai Chang, Siegmar Schmidt, Wayne V. Sorin, Jimmie L. Yarnell, Harry Chou, Steven [Steve] A. Newton, Christopher [Chris] M. Miller, Roberto A. Collins, Bernd Maisenbacher, Wolfgang Reichert, Jochen Rivoir, Horst Schweikardt, Emmerich Muller, Christian Hentschel, Frank A. Maier, Wilfried Pless, Michael  Pott, Robert Jahn, Mark W. Champine, pg 84-87

A Visual User Interface for the HP-UX and Domain Operating Systems. This graphical user interface provides a friendly and pleasant front end for the HP-UX and Domain operating systems. It makes these subsystems less intimidating for new users and at the same time provides features that appeal to experienced users, by Mark A. Champine, pg 88-99

Open Dialogue, pg 93

HP Visual User Interface, Version 2.0, by David A. Williams, pg 97-98

April 1991 v.42 n.2

Cover: In the background is a photomicrograph of a microwave monolithic integrated circuit. In the foreground are examples of thick-film and thin-film microwave hybrid microcircuits, waveguide components, and various amplifier, multiplier and modulator microcircuit assemblies

A Family of High-Performance Synthesized Sweepers. Eleven models offer frequency coverage to 50 GHz in coax, extendable to 100 GHz in waveguide with millimeter heads. Swept frequency accuracy is ten times better than previous designs. A menu-based user interface simplifies operation, by James E. Bossaller, Roger P. Oblad, John R. Regazzi, pg 6-16. 8360.

Designing for Low Cost of Ownership, by James R. Stead, pg 10-11

Strife Testing the Alphanumeric Display, by James R. Stead, pg 13

Front Panel Designed for Manufacturability, by James E. Bossaller, pg 15

Built-in Synthesized Sweeper Self-Test and Adjustments. A combination of hardware features and firmware routines makes it possible to isolate most failures to the assembly level and make many adjustments without external test equipment, by Michael J. Seibel, pg 17-23. 8360.

Automatic Frequency Span Calibration, pg 19

Accessing a Power Meter for Calibration, pg 22

A High-Performance Sweeper Output Power Leveling System. A feedforward ALC design gives HP 8360 sweepers improved flatness, power accuracy, and modulation performance. Factory calibration techniques minimize measurement errors so as not to degrade the improved specifications, by Glen M. Baker, Mark N. Davidson, Lance E. Haag, pg 24-30

Mismatch Error Calculation for Relative Power Measurements with Changing Source Match, pg 28-29

A 0.01-to-40-GHz Switched Frequency Doubler. This microcircuit doubler has a passthrough mode for 0.01 to-20-GHz input signals and a doubler mode for 20 to 40 GHz. An integrated RF switch changes modes. Slotline filters reduce spurious outputs to -40dBc or less, by James R. Zellers, pg 31-33. 8630.

A High-Speed Microwave Pulse Modulator. This optional fast pulse modulator uses an unequally spaced diode topology to achieve a wide bandwidth and a high on-off ratio without resorting to performance-limiting diode saturation, by Mary K. Koenig, pg 34-36. 8360.

New Technology in Synthesized Sweeper Microcircuits. A new packaging technology using thick-film hybrids and contacts integral to the package simplifies testing and rework and reduces RFI. New circuit designs include a triple balanced mixer and quasi-elliptic low-pass filters. New approaches reduce video feedthrough and harmonic generation, by Ronald C. Blanc, Richard S. Bischof, Patrick B. Harper, pg 36-46. 8360.

Modular Microwave Breadboard System, by Stan Bischof, pg 41

Quasi-Elliptic Low-Pass Filters, by Stan Bischof, pg 44-45

DC-to-50-GHz Programmable Step Attenuators. Based on HP’s proven edgeline technology, these attenuators provide the HP 8360 sweepers with up to 90 dB of attenuation in 10-dB steps, by David R. Veteran, pg 47-49. 8360, 33324/26/27.

50-to-110-GHz High-Performance Millimeter-Wave Source Modules. State-of-the-art microcircuit technologies and development tools were employed to produce a W-band amplifier tripler, a V-band amplifier doubler, an R-band amplifier doubler, and a coupler detector for two new frequency multiplier modules, by Giovonnae F. Anderson, Mohamed M. Sayed, pg 50-64. 83557A, 83558A.

The Use of the HP Microwave Design System in the W-Band Tripler Design, by Giovonnae Anderson, pg 53-54

The Use of HP ME 10/30 in the W-Band Tripler Design, by Roy Marciulionis, pg 57

Flatness Correction, by Lon Dearden, pg 59

High-Power W-Band Source Module, by Mohamed Sayed, pg 61

An Instrument for Testing North American Digital Cellular Radios. The HP 11846A is designed to produce filtered p/4 DQPSK modulated I and Q baseband signals needed to test digital cellular radios, by David M. Hoover, pg 65-72. 11846A.

HP 11846A Filtering Technique, pg 71-72

Measuring the Modulation Accuracy of p/4 DQPSK Signals for Digital Cellular Transmitters. Using digital signal processing techniques, this software accurately verifies the RF performance of digital cellular transmitters conforming to the North American Dual-Mode Cellular System standard, by Raymond A. Birgenheier, pg 73-82 . 11847A.

A Test Verification Tool for C and C++ Programs. The HP Branch Validator provides an automated tool that enables software developers to test and verify the branch coverage of their modules as they are created, by David L. Neuder, pg 83-92

Authors April 1991: Roger P. Oblad, James [Jim] E. Bossaller, John R. Regazzi, Michael [Mike] J. Seibel, Lance E. Haag, Mark N. Davidson, Glen M. Baker, James [Jim] R. Zellers, Mary K. Koenig, Ronald [Ron] C. Blanc, Richard [Stan] S. Bischof, Patrick [Pat] B. Harper, David [Dave] R. Veteran, Mohamed M. Sayed, Giovonnae F. Anderson, David [Dave] M. Hoover, Raymond [Ray] A. Birgenheier, David [Dave] L. Neuder, pg 93-95

June 1991 v.42 n.3

Cover: Two HP 48SX scientific expandable calculators can use their infrared input/output link to exchange data and programs along with a serial RS-232 cable link to a personal computer.

HP 48SX Scientific Expandable Calculator: Innovation and Evolution. Many of the features of this advanced handheld calculator have evolved from its predecessors, the HP 41C and HP 28S. Others, such as its unit management system, are new, by William C. Wickes, Charles M. Patton, pg 6-12

The HP 48SX Interfaces and Applications. The HP 48SX scientific expandable calculator provides support for multiple applications, both built-in and externally developed, with customized user interfaces. The Equation-Writer and interactive plotting are two of the built-in applications, by Diana K. Byrne, Robert W. Jones, Patrick J. Megowan, Gabe L. Eisenstein, Ted W. Beers, pg 13-21

HP Solve Equation Library Application Card. The card contains a library of 315 equations, the periodic table of the elements, a constants library, a multiple equation solver, a finance application, and engineering utilities, by Eric L. Vogel, pg 22-25. 48SX.

Hardware Design of the HP 48SX Scientific Expandable Calculator. Leveraging an earlier design resulted in prototypes with 90% production tooled parts only nine months after the start of the project. The HP 48SX includes an 8-line-by-22 character super-twisted nematic liquid crystal display, two expansion ports for ROM or battery-backed RAM cards, and two I/O ports: RS-232 and infrared, by M. Jack Muranami, James P. Dickie, Preston D. Brown, Mark A. Smith, Lester S. Moore, Thomas B. Lindberg, David L. Smith, pg 25-34

Industrial Design of the HP 48SX Calculator, by Michael Derocher, pg 27-28

HP 48SX Custom Integrated Circuit, by Preston D. Brown, pg 30

Mechanical Design of the HP 48SX Memory Card and Memory Card Connector, by M. Jack Muranami, pg 32-33

The HP 48SX Calculator Input/Output System. An RS-232 link allows communication with personal computers. An infrared link provides for printing and for two-way calculator-to-calculator communication, by Steven L. Harper, Robert S. Worsley, pg 35-40

Manufacturing the HP 48SX Calculator. Sharing manufacturing processes with earlier, simpler calculators shortened development time and improves manufacturing efficiency. The HP 48SX and the simpler calculators also share the same production line at the same time – a concept known as coproduction, by Richard W. Riper, pg 40-43

A 10-Hz-to-150-MHz Spectrum Analyzer with a Digital IF Section. The HP 3588A’s digital resolution bandwidth filters offer better shape factors and can be swept four times faster than their analog counterparts. Narrowband zoom measurements using fast Fourier transform analysis can be hundreds of times faster. Extensive self-calibration, a help system with hypertext, and adaptive data acquisition also improve performance, by James H. Cauthorn, Kirsten C. Carlson, Roy L. Mason, Eric J. Wicklund, Jay M. Wardle, Timothy L. Hillstrom, Joseph F. Tarantino, pg 44-60

Spectrum Analyzer Self-Calibration, by Timothy L. Hillstrom, Joseph F. Tarantino, pg 47-48

Adaptive Data Acquisition, by James H. Cauthorn, pg 51

Help System with Hypertext, by Mark M. Smith, pg 53-54

User Interface Compiler, Bryan P. Murray, pg 57-58

Authors June 1991: William [Bill] C. Wickes, Charles M. Patton, Ted W. Beers, Diana K. Byrne, Robert [Max] W. Jones, Gabe L. Eisenstein, Patrick [Pat] J. Megowan, Eric L. Vogel, Mark A. Smith, Lester [Les] S. Moore, James [Jim] P. Dickle, Preston D. Brown, David [Dave] L. Smith, Thomas [Tom] B. Lindberg, M. Jack Muranami, Steven [Steve] L. Harper, Robert [Bob] S. Worsley, Richard [Rick] W. Riper, Eric J. Wicklund, Joseph [Joe] F. Tarantino, James [Jim] H. Cauthorn, Kirsten C. Carlson, Jay M. Wardle, Timothy [Tim] L. Hillstrom, Roy L. Mason, Rex Backman, Douglas [Doug] Daetz, William [Bill] P. Carmichael, Edith Wilson, Spencer B. Graves, David Lubkin, John W. Goodnow, Ronald [Ron] F. Richardson, pg 60-64

Easy-to-Use Performance Tools with a Consistent User Interface Across HP Operating Systems. By involving customers in the product development process and incorporating their feedback into the product, HP GlancePlus has eliminated the mystique commonly associated with performance tools. Exception-based reporting displays only the interesting data, by Rex A. Backman, pg 65-70

Design Prototyping for HP GlancePlus, by Joe Thomas, pg 69

The Performance Tool Quadrant, by Rex Backman, pg 70

Improving the Product Development Process. To define, design, and product products and services that will be successful in the marketplace, it’s necessary to understand the product development process and employ tools to measure and improve the process, by Douglas Daetz, William P. Carmichael, Edith Wilson, Spencer B. Graves, pg 71-76

DSEE: A Software Configuration Management Tool. HP Apollo provides a software tool that helps to manage development and maintenance of the many components that make up large-scale software systems, by David C. Lubkin, pg 77-83. Domain Software Engineering Environment.

A Mechanism to Support Parallel Development via RCS. HP’s Imaging Systems Division uses the HP-UX revision control system utility, RCS, to implement a configuration management system that allows stable, released software to remain unchanged while modifications are made to some of its components, by John W. Goodnow, pg 84-89

Building and Managing an Integrated Project Support Environment. HP’s Roseville Networks Division has developed an integrated, cost-effective computing environment that fosters cooperative computing and provides R&D engineers with easy access to the tools and methodologies for product development, by Ronald F. Richardson, pg 90-96. HP-UX.

October 1991 v.42 n.4

Cover: HP’s Component Monitoring System

Introduction to the HP Component Monitoring System. This fourth-generation patient monitoring system offers a set of hardware and software building blocks from which functional modules are assembled to tailor the system to the application and the patient, by Christoph Westerteicher, pg 6-10

Medical Expectations of Today’s Patient Monitors, by Frank Rochlitzer, pg 9

Component Monitoring System Hardware Architecture. Up to 23 function cards residing in a computer module communicate over a message passing bus. The computer module, the display, and the parameter modules that measure vital signs can be in separate locations as needed by the application, by Christoph Westerteicher, Werner E. Heim, pg 10-13

Component Monitoring System Software Architecture. A modular design leads to a complex but easily manageable system that ensures economical resource utilization, by Martin Reiche, pg 13-18

Component Monitoring System Software Development Environment, pg 15

Component Monitoring System Parameter Module Interface. This interface is the link between the component Monitoring System computer module and the patient parameter modules. It provides fast response, optimum use of the available bandwidth, configuration detection, and parameter module synchronization, by Winfried Kaiser, pg 19-21

Measuring the ECG Signal with a Mixed Analog-Digital Application-Specific IC. Putting the ECG data acquisition subsystem into a Component Monitoring System parameter module mandates high-density packaging and low power consumption, and was only possible by implementing major elements of the circuit in a large mixed analog-digital ASIC, by Wolfgang Grossbach, pg 21-24

A Very Small Noninvasive Blood Pressure Measurement Device. This small assembly covers the entire blood pressure measurement spectrum from neonates to adults. The packaging of the air pump assembly makes several contributions to the objectives, by Rainer Rometsch, pg 25-26

A Patient Monitor Two-Channel Stripchart Recorder. Small enough to fit in a double-width HP Component Monitoring System parameter module, this recorder embodies simplicity of design, a highly tooled mechanism, and sophisticated printhead power management, by Leslie Bank, pg 26-28

Patient Monitor Human Interface Design. A design based on human factors leads to an intuitive and easy-to-use human interface for the HP Component Monitoring System, by Gerhard Tivig, Wilhelm Meier, pg 29-36

Globalization Tools and Processes in the HP Component Monitoring System. Software design and localization are decoupled. All languages are treated in the same way. A database contains the text strings for all languages, and automated tools aid the translator, by Gerhard Tivig, pg 37-40

The Physiological Calculation Application in the HP Component Monitoring System. This application converts raw real-time data into derived values the clinician can use to assess the patient’s hemodynamic, oxgenation, and ventilatory condition, by Paul Johnson, Steven J. Weisner, pg 40-43

Mechanical Implementation of the HP Component Monitoring System. The part count and the number of different parts are dramatically lower than for previous designs. Fewer than ten vendors are used for purchased mechanical parts, by Erwin Flachslander, Karl Daumuller, pg 44-48

An Automated Test Environment for a Medical Patient Monitoring System. The AUTOTEST program controls a keypusher and patient simulators to automate the testing of the software for the HP Component Monitoring System, by Dieter Goring, pg 49-52

Production and Final Test of the HP Component Monitoring System. A vertically oriented material flow minimizes handling and simplifies customization. Automated final test systems minimize human errors and collect data for monitoring process quality, by Otto Schuster, Joachim Weller, pg 52-54

Calculating the Real Cost of Software Defects. Using data from a well-established software metrics database and an industry profit loss model, a method is developed that computes the real cost of dealing with software defects, by William T. Ward, pg 55-58

A Case Study of Code Inspections. The code inspection process is a tool that can be used early in the software development cycle to help improve the quality of software products and the productivity of development engineers, by Mark E. Boles, Frank W. Blakely, pg 58-63

Authors October 1991: Christoph [Chris] Westerteicher, Werner E. Heim, Martin Reiche, Winfried Kaiser, Wolfgang Grossbach, Rainer Rometsch, Leslie [Les] Bank, Gerhard Tivig, Wilhelm Meier, Steven [Steve] J. Weisner, Paul Johnson, Karl Daumuller, Erwin Flachslander, Dieter Goring, Otto Schuster, Joachim Weller, William [Jack] T. Ward, Frank W. Blakely, Mark E. Boles, Larry Shintaku, Michael [Mike] B. Raynham, Douglas [Doug] M. Thom, Marilyn J. Lang, Gary W. Lum, Thomas Tom, Irvin R. Jones, Jr., Christophe Grosthor, Viswanathan [Suri] S. Narayanan, Philip [Phil] Garcia, John D. Graf, David [Dave] W. Blevins, Christopher [Chris] A. Bartholomew, pg 64-68

The HP Vectra 486 Personal Computer. The HP Vectra 486 series of computers uses the Intel486Ô microprocessor, a custom-designed burst-mode memory controller, and the HP implementation of the Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA), by Larry Shintaku, pg 69-73

The HP Vectra 486 EISA SCSI Subsystem, by Mike Jerbic, pg 70

The HP Vectra 486/33T, by Mark Linsley, pg 72

The EISA Connector. Providing backward compatibility in the EISA connector hardware for ISA I/0 boards resulted in a bilevel connector design that provides pins for both bus standards in the same connector, by Douglas M. Thom, Michael B. Raynham, pg 73-77

EISA Configuration Software, by Tony Dowden, pg 75

The HP Vectra 486 Memory Controller. The memory subsystem architecture and the memory controller in the HP Vectra 486 personal computer provide a high-performance burst-mode capability, by Gary W. Lum, Marilyn J. Lang, pg 78-83

The HP Vectra 486 BASIC I/O System. An Intel486 processor, the EISA bus standard, and a new memory subsystem all required enhancements to the Basic I/0 System to ensure that the HP Vectra 486 made the best possible use of these new features, by Irvin R. Jones, Jr., Philip Garcia, Viswanathan S. Narayanan, Thomas Tom, Christophe Grosthor, pg 83-92

Performance Analysis of Personal Computer Workstations. The ability to analyze the performance of personal computers via noninvasive monitoring and simulation allows designers to make critical design trade offs before committing to hardware, by David W. Blevins, John D. Graf, Christopher A. Bartholomew, pg 92-96

December 1991 v.42 n.5

Cover: an artist’s rendition of a typical HP Sockets domain

HP Software Integration Sockets: A Tool for Linking Islands of Automation. The task of integrating diverse applications over a network of HP and non-HP machines is made easier with this software tool, by Mark Ikemoto, Mitchell J. Amino, Irene S. Smith, Alan C. Miranda, Scott A. Gulland, Cynthia Givens, Kathleen A. Fulton, pg 6-23

Configuration Files, pg 13-14

Performance in the HP Sockets Domain, pg 16

HP sockets Gateway, pg 20

Rigorous Software Engineering: A Method for Preventing Software Defects. Formal specification languages enable software engineers to apply the rigorous concepts of discrete mathematics to the software development process, by Stephen P. Bear, Tony W. Rush, pg 24-31. HP-SL.

Specifying an Electronic Mail System with HP-SL. Starting with a list of system features and capabilities, an HP-SL specification for a simple mail system is developed and the steps involved in this process are analyzed, by Patrick G. Goldsack, Tony W. Rush, pg 32-39. Specification Language.

Specification of State in HP-SL, pg 38

Specifying Real-Time Behavior in HP-SL. Using the event and history specification features of HP-SL, the software for a real-time alarm monitor is specified, by Paul D. Harry, Tony W. Rush, pg 40-45. Specification Language.

History Specifications, pg 43

Using Formal Specification for Product Development. In one product development project, the use of precise software specifications helped to uncover potential problems that might ordinarily be overlooked, and raised some interesting issues about using formal techniques, by Curtis W. Freeman, B. Robert Ladeau, pg 46-50. HP-SL, Specification Language.

Formal Specification and Structured Design in Software Development. HP-SL history specifications and techniques from structured analysis are used to create a formal specification for a critical portion of the code for a medical instrument, by J. Daren Bledsoe, Paul D. Harry, Judith L. Cyrus, pg 51-58

Telecommunications Network Monitoring System. This system supervises any telephone network using the 2-Mbit/s CEPT primary rate interface and the CCITT R2 or #7 signaling system. It automatically collects and analyzes data on CCITT-specified and other parameters related to the calls flowing through the network nodes, by Nicola De Bello, Marco Silvestri, Giuseppe Mazzucato, Antonio Posenato, pg 59-65. E3500A.

Authors December 1991: Mitchell J. Amino, Irene [Skup] S. Smith, Mark Ikemoto, Alan C. Miranda, Kathleen [Kathy] A. Fulton, Cynthia Givens, Scott A. Gulland, Tony W. Rush, Stephen P. Bear, Patrick C. Goldsack, Paul D. Harry, B. Robert Ladeau, Curtis W. Freeman, Judith L. Cyrus, J. Daren Bledsoe, Marco Silvestri, Antonio Posenato, Giuseppe [Beppo] Mazzucato, Nicola [Nick] De Bello, pg 66-68

Index: Volume 42 January 1991 through December 1991. PART 1: Chronological Index, pg 69-70. PART 2: Subject Index, pg 71-73. PART 3: Product Index, pg 74. PART 4: Author Index, pg 75.

1991 – MEASURE Magazine

January-February 1991 Targeting the Future: HP Labs’ 25th Year

  • HP Labs celebrates 25th anniversary and mission of long-range technological exploration and development in collaboration with product organizations; new products account for most of HP sales. 3-9
  • HP’s Advanced Manufacturing Systems Operation (AMSO) develops “electronic toolbox” -– the Service Bay Diagnostic System (SBDS)– for Ford. 10-14
  • Holdings of HP archives are described. 15-18
  • Technology Center of Silicon Valley houses history and technology of Silicon Valley. 19-21
  • Jim Hanley of HP Asia Pacific workstation group collects carvings from New Guinea. 23-24
  • HP’s views on changing and adapting; five “C’s” of change-adept professionals: confidence, challenge, coping, counterbalance, creativity. 25-26
  • John Young discusses progress of reorganization plan. 27-28
  • HP awards of 1990 listed. 30
  • Year-end net revenue up 6 percent, net earnings down 18. 30
  • HP Labs engineer and 15 other women set Guiness record for biggest sky diving stack of women. 32

March-April 1991 HP Flexes its Training Muscle

  • HP revamps and consolidates its training programs. 2-7
  • Lew Platt, manager of the new computer Systems Organization discusses CSO goals; long-term goals focus on open systems, client/server environment; short-term goals to improve profitability, eliminate redundancy. 8-12
  • HP’s NewWave office used by Britain’s Prince Edward at the Theatre Division Ltd. 13
  • HP computers and peripherals used at Australia’s Argyle Diamond Mines. 14-17
  • HP South Queensferry, Scotland, celebrates 25th anniversary. 18-21
  • HP’s Donna Yeager named Disabled Person of the Year; other disabled employees featured. (diversity) 22-25
  • John Young discusses commitment to R&D, time to market, break even time (BET). 27-28
  • Information systems ROUTS, COMSYS replaced by BatchNet. 29
  • Canadian Airlines International (CAIL) purchases 81 HP Vectras for computer-based training. 29
  • HP Malaysia team honored for reducing defects in optoelectroinic lamps. 30
  • Executive Committee created in 1974, HP’s primary policy-setting body, eliminated. 30
  • New products include five business computer systems and servers. 31
  • Vectras used in Helsinki, Finland, for analyzing the genetic traits of dairy cows. 32

May-June 1991 What Scares Sun, DEC and IBM?

  • “Snakes” program is HP’s Apollo 9000 Series 700 workstation family to compete with other RISC workstation manufacturers. 3-8
  • Dick Hackborn, executive vice president of Computer Products Organization, with HP 31 years and led laserjet printer business to top of market. 9-13
  • HP employee, Claudia Davis, adopts Romanian child. 14-18
  • YHP is key business partner of ORIX Rentec, Tokyo, largest equipment rental company in world. 21-23
  • HP instrument steers Nissan racing cars. 24-26
  • Dean Morton, chief operating officer, discusses progress of Quality Maturity System (QMS). 27-28
  • Soldier uses HP-41C in Desert Storm. 29
  • HP credit union sends Valentines to soldiers in Persian Gulf. 29
  • Michael McGuire, MTS, HP Lab’s Printing Technology department book “An Eye For Fractals.” 29
  • HP gives grants to UCLA for IC lab and computing resource center to Oregon State Univ. 30
  • MPG, Medical Products Group, Andover and Waltham Mass., celebrate Black History Month. (diversity) 31
  • Cultural and ethnic diversity celebration at HP San Jose, Calif. 32

July-August 1991 Brainstorming in Corvallis

  • Open systems cooperative computing, NewWave software, is success with customers. 3-7
  • HP’s efforts to protect environment and conserve/recycle are explained. 8-12
  • HP Labs scientist, Jeanne Wiseman, recognized by 1991 HP Technical Women’s Conference for scientific contributions and community leadership. (women) 13-14
  • Hewlett’s hobby is wildflower photography. 15-17
  • Bill Wickes, Corvallis, is “father” of HP’s best-selling scientific calculators. 18-20
  • HP-95LX palmtop computer is giant step for technology. 21-22
  • Dick Alberding, executive vice president, retires after 33 years; as head of Marketing and International Sector, he helped put “global” in HP lexicon. 24-26
  • John Young discusses managing practices and open door policy. 27-28
  • HP gets awards from Spain and China. 29
  • HP opens subsidiary in Prague, Czechoslovakia. 29
  • HP Canada’s grants advanced computing lab to school for blind. 30
  • HP sponsors cooperative study program with Univ. of Cincinnati to design chromatography lab of future. 31
  • Customer’s cat gets tail caught in HP laserjet printer. 32

September-October 1991 Medical Marvels of Monitor Moppets

  • HP’s launched its 2116A computer 25 years ago; now computer products are two-thirds of company’s revenue. 3-6
  • Computer Systems Policy Project (CSPP) comprised of 11 CEOs of top companies; they meet in Washington, DC, to discuss public-policy issues of industry-wide concern. 7
  • New acquisitions and joint ventures include Idacom Telecom Division, Edmonton, Alberta Canada; HP & Controll Kft.; AOT Applied Optoelectronic Technology Operation; Edisa Informatica SA; HP Thailand Ltd., Bangkok; HP Ceskoslovensko spol.s.r.o.; HP Portugal S.A., Lisbon; Haupu Information Technology; HCL Hewlett-Packard Ltd.; Hewlett-Packard Polska; Intelligent Network Communication; Apollo Systems Division; Bergamo, Italy Hardcopy Operation; Quingdao Zhonghui Medical Products Ltd; India Manufacturing Operation; Hewlett-Packard Bilgisayar Ve Olcum Sistemleri. 8-11
  • HP’s new elder care benefit introduced. 12-15
  • Lucile Packard led planning for new Stanford children’s hospital. 16-19
  • HP sponsor 24 professors to help earn Ph.D.s. 20-21
  • HP uses relative ranking process to gauge employee performance. 22-23
  • HP employee helps train dogs to help disabled: Canine Companions for Independence. 24-27
  • John Young discusses HP Mexico 25-year success story. 29
  • HP signs agreement with Moscow company, which will market and manufacture HP products. 30
  • Four U.S. sales regions and Canadian sales region combine. 31

November-December 1991 The New Germany

  • Fall of Berlin Wall and German reunification brings HP new opportunities. 3-7
  • HP’s network of libraries are modern electronic information centers staff with trained consultants. 8-10
  • John Doyle, executive vice-president and employee from 1956-1991, is Management by Walking Around (MBWA) originator in 1967. 12-14
  • COLOS (conceptual learning of science project) software written by Zvonko Fazarinc uses computers to teach complex scientific principles in easy to understand ways. 15
  • Federal Express uses HP Apollo 9000 computers to develop new FedEx system to monitor flight and truck planning, crew management, weather, maintenance. 16-19
  • Buenaventura “Benny” Garcia, Spain, is competitive swimmer. 20-23
  • John Young discusses changes that made 1991 tough year. 24-25
  • Charles Babbage calculator rebuilt. 26
  • HP equipment appears in movie “Terminator 2: Judgement Day.” 27
  • HP Exeter Computer Manufacturing Operation (ECMO), Exeter, N.H., first to earn International Standards Organization (ISO) certification. 27
  • Third-quarter net revenue up 8 percent, earnings up 20. 28
  • “Real Life” advertising campaign features HP products used in every-day situations. 29
  • New products in 1991 include HP 75000 model D20, HP FAX 300, HP SONOS 1500 echocardiography system, HP 8504A precision reflectometer, HP systems and servers, HP OpenView software, HP DeskJet 500J Japanese language printer, HP SCSI-2 disk drives, HP ORCA chemical analysis robot, HP RTAP 5.1 industrial automation enabler, HP DeskWriter C printer laser quality color printing, HP ScanJet IIc printer scanner. 30-31

1991 – Packard Speeches

Box 1, Folder – Folder 35A


November 6, 1991, Review of Stock Repurchase Action, Statement to All HP Managers


11/6/91, Copy of typewritten text of remarks

It is not clear how this was communicated, but it is clear that Packard felt strongly about the subject, and wished that managers be made aware of his, and Hewlett’s, feelings on the subject.


“During the period from 1980 until 1988 both Bill Hewlett and I refrained from any involvement in the management of the Hewlett-Packard Company. We felt we had a good management team well oriented in the traditional management policies we had followed over the past 40 years. I was troubled by the statement that HP was to become a more customer driven company because I felt that we had given the requirements of our customers a high priority from the very beginning. Our overall performance had been very good with earnings growing from less than $1.00 in 1980 to over $3.50 at the end of 1988, and the stock price increasing from $15 to over $90, and we had $2 billion in cash.


“When it was proposed that we use that cash to buy back HP stock I had an intuitive feeling that we were doing the wrong thing but we had a strong finance committee and most of our directors had experience in such matters so I was hesitant to bring the issue to a head at that time. You may recall I did predict that this action would bring the stock price down to about half its current value, to the mid $20s within the following year. And that is actually what happened.


“Hind-sight is always more accurate than fore-sight and we should look at what actually happened. The book price of the stock was $15.49 as of 10/31/85. It increased to $17.29 in 1986, $29.57 in 1987, $22.70 in 1988, and it would have been $25.86 in 1989 without the repurchase of stock. The repurchase brought the book value down to $22.91 as of 10/31/89. The remaining shareholders thus each lost $2.95 in book value. There were 237,644,000 shares outstanding after the repurchase and so the total loss they suffered was $701,049,000!!!!


“To compound the felony HP’s employees lost $24 million dollars a year in cash profit sharing and this is not just a one year loss but a loss in every year that follows in an amount in proportion to the interest return on $2 billion. The U.S. employees also lost a similar amount in retirement funds.


“The only stock repurchase plan that would benefit the company would be when the stock could be purchased below the book value.



Box 5, Folder 39A – General Speeches


February 28, 1991, Speech at Colorado University, Colorado Springs, CO

Packard was Keynote speaker at Banquet in honor the school’s 25th  Anniversary


2/28/91, Copy of typewritten text of speech


Packard reviews some HP history, particularly its close association with Stanford,  which became a very important factor in the growing company’s ability to attract and retain technical personnel. So, in 1950, when they decided to establish operations outside the Palo Alto area, proximity to a university was high on their list, along with a location that would provide an attractive living area for employees. Access to an airport was also important.


He says Colorado looked good to them and Boulder was their first choice – but they couldn’t find a satisfactory location. They decided on Loveland, where operations were started in leased facilities in 1959.


Operations in Loveland “turned out very well” and so in 1962 they decided to look for another site in Colorado. Again they looked for a site in Boulder, but  without success. They did, however, find two possibilities – one in Denver, and another in Colorado Springs. “The Colorado Springs site had one fault,” Packard says, “It was too far from the University of Colorado – and neither the Air Force Academy or Colorado College could provide the continuing educational needs of our technical people.”


Packard recalls leaving Colorado Springs one fine spring day to drive up to Denver and take another at the location there. “As I came over the ridge above the city,” he says, “all I could see was a thick layer of brown smog where the city should be. That settled the matter – Colorado Springs it would be.”


However, he says he was “still troubled about the lack of a university that we needed to help us keep our technical staff at the forefront of the rapidly expanding electronics field.” Saying he has always been an optimist in dealing with such problems, he felt sure they could some how get the University of Colorado to help. “A U.C. branch here would help in bringing more high technology companies to Colorado Springs….With the help of the University, the Legislature, and the Governor, the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs was opened to classes in September 1965.


Packard says he does not deserve very much of the credit for this U.C. facility in Colorado Springs. “Many other people in the Hewlett-Packard Company were involved, and many people in other high technology companies in Colorado Springs helped, and it would not have happened without the help of many people in the State government….I am very pleased to be with you tonight to join with all of you in thanking the Dean and all of the people at the University of Colorado in Colorado Springs for their twenty five years of dedicated [help] to both Colorado springs and to the State of Colorado.”


Packard notes that we are all joined in “thanksgiving for the magnificent performance of our armed forces in the Desert Storm operation.” He comments that this victory was made possible in large part due to the most “sophisticated military equipment in the world, operated by the most capable and most dedicated military people in the world. This city, Colorado Springs with many high technology firms producing this equipment, and with the Airforce Academy training the military people to operate this equipment has every reason to take great pride in being an important part of the most successful military operation the world has ever seen.”


Packard takes a moment to change direction and offer some criticism directed at Colorado’s representatives in Congress. He adds that he feels he has the right to do so because Colorado is his home state. “I simply can not refrain,” he says, “from telling you that I am ashamed of some of the people you have sent to Washington. If our Armed Forces  had been developed along the lines they recommended we would likely be hanging our heads in shame tonight.”


He says he wants to conclude with some “guidelines which I think should be considered for C.U.C.S. in the years ahead. There has been considerable concern during the past few years about our ability to maintain our leadership in technology, particularly over the Japanese and other Asian countries and the counties of Europe as well….I think it’s time to get back to some of the fundamentals of this issue. The development, manufacturing and marketing of new products with the highest quality and lowest cost is a highly integrated procedure. High reliability and efficient manufacturability must be designed into the product in the original development. The performance to meet the needs of the customer must also be designed into the product in the original development. I hope you will give more emphasis to teaching your students that the design, the manufacturing, and the marketing has to be a fully integrated procedure especially for new high technology products.


“I do not share the concern that we will not be able to retain our technological leadership. Our government could be more helpful, the playing field is not always level, especially in respect to the Japanese. My main concern is that we are not doing our own job as well as we should. And I am sure we can, and I think we will, do better.


“Thank you for asking me to join in honoring the Colorado State University in Colorado Springs on this important Anniversary.”


2/28/91, Printed invitation to the Banquet

2/28/91, Copy of typewritten sheet, plus attachment, giving information about the University

2/4/91, Letter to Packard from Peiter A. Frick, Dean of the College of Engineering and Applied Science thanking him for agreeing to join them at their Anniversary, and giving some details about the evening.

2/27/91, Copy of a typewritten sheet listing Packard’s itinerary for the trip

Undated, Typewritten sheet listing dates HP’s facilities in Colorado were opened



Box 5, Folder 39B – General Speeches


April 25, 1991, Hearing on the Indirect Cost of University Research Before the Subcommittee on Science of the House of Representatives Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, Washington D.C.


4/25/91, Typewritten text of  Packard’s statement


Packard says he is “…pleased to appear before you today at this hearing on the Indirect Costs of University Research.” He has some recommendations to make, he says, and states that if these are adopted “…they will enable universities to conduct substantially more research with the funds provided by the federal government than they are able to do today. My recommendations will include the Administrative Cost issue, Direct Cost matters, Buildings and Equipment, and some of the other issues covered in the White House Science Council Panel on the Health of the U. S. Colleges and Universities, which I co-chaired with Dr. Allan Bromley from May 1984 until February 1986….He says he realizes there will not be time to consider all of his recommendations in detail, “but I think it is very important for this committee to address the overall problem, not just the indirect cost problem.


“In my opinion,” Packard says, “there is no issue before the Congress that is more important than determining how America can maintain its position of world wide leadership in technology that has been achieved since World War II. The matters to be discussed at this hearing are an important part of this issue, but I want to begin with a brief summary of how the federal support of university research began and why it is so important.”


Packard tells how President Roosevelt, when it became evident that the United States might become involved in World War II,  appointed Dr. Vannevar Bush to head a new agency called the National Defense Research Committee, in June, 1940. The object of this Committee was to recruit and use America’s best scientific talent to win the war, and Dr. Bush began by recruiting six thousand of the country’s leading scientists, engineers and doctors. By the end of the war this committee, known as the Office of Scientific Research and Development, had thirty thousand scientists, engineers and doctors engaged in this endeavor to use science to win the war.


“Some of these scientists,” Packard says, “concentrated on the specific objective of making the atom bomb. Others concentrated on applying scientific research and product development to all other aspects of the war effort. They developed better radar and radar counter measures, the proximity fuse, better sonar equipment for our submarines, countermeasure equipment for submarine warfare, which confused the enemy about the location of our submarines, and a great many types of equipment and systems described as electronic warfare.”


Packard describes the work of this research and development project as “…the most important determinate in the allied victory over the enemy in Europe and in our success in retaking the islands in the western Pacific from Japan.”


“This unprecedented endeavor is described in detail in a book, Modern Arms and Free Men, written by Vannevar Bush in 1949, and every member of this committee should read this book if they have not done so.”


Because the project was so successful, Packard says Vannevar Bush felt something similar should be continued after the war, and he quotes Bush as follows: ‘On the wisdom with which we bring science to bear in the war against disease, in the creation of new industries, and in the strengthening of our armed forces depends in large measure our future as a nation.’


“Vannevar Bush’s advice was followed,” Packard says, “and the outcome has been exactly what he predicted. The United States is today the leader of the world in Technology, We have made great progress in the war against disease. We have created vast new industries, and our brilliant military victory, Desert Storm, was assured because our distinguished military leaders and our highly skilled, brave and dedicated men and women in uniform had the best weapons in the world.


Packard says it is essential that all involved in reviewing the present issue, members of this committee, of the entire Congress, and of the Administration, realize that “the subject we were asked to discuss with you today, Administrative Overhead, is only a small part of the major issue which is: How can this research and development endeavor, which has served our country so well since World War II, be continued with equal success in the years ahead.”


Packard makes three recommendations, not going into detail due to time limitations, but says he will be available for questions and discussion afterwards.


ADMINISTRATIVE OVERHEAD: “Administrative overhead should be paid for by the federal government as a fixed percentage of direct research cost.” He suggests about 50% for private universities, less for state supported universities. Packard says this fixed allowance need not be audited, and he believes the elimination of this requirement would reduce the cost to both the schools and to the government. Packard also points out that it would eliminate “the current anguish about the legality and propriety of administrative overhead costs. Such overhead would include occupancy costs, light, heat, janitorial services and routine maintenance – but not the original cost of the buildings and of major equipment.”


COST OF BUILDINGS AND MAJOR EQUIPMENT: “The cost of buildings and major equipment paid for by university funds should be reimbursed in government contracts by a payment of the government’s fair share of interest at the average level of the current return on university endowments and by an allowance for depreciation. He includes some thoughts on how this should be determined.”


THE MANAGEMENT OF DIRECT COSTS: These are, Packard says, “…the salaries and the fringe benefits of the scientists, engineers and doctors who are doing the research, and costs of assistants, including graduate students, and the materials, etc. needed in their work. The direct costs should be precisely defined and be uniform for all contracts.” Packard believes too many reports and too much paper work is required of the people doing the work. He says “Some of the government contracts require the research people to make three reports every month, a financial report, a scientific report, and a report of their work for people who do not understand science….There is a large variation in the amount of reporting required among government agencies. The reporting should be reduced to a bare minimum, and uniformity among all government agencies should be required.”


For some additional recommendations Packard refers members of the Committee to the Packard-Bromley report of 1986. “For example,” he says, “most projects should be funded for at least three years; and there is no way to accurately measure the division of the research person’s time between teaching and research, and there is absolutely no reason to try to do so.”


Packard says the three key recommendations he has made here “must be implemented as an integrated unit. All federal agencies must be required to adopt them. If this is done there will be significant cost savings, and there will be more research from a lower level of  funding.


“It is the oversight responsibility of the Congress to determine whether the tax payer is receiving full value for the federal dollars spent on research at U. S. universities. The answer is a resounding No! And it is primarily the fault of the Congress!


“That completes a brief summary of my views on the subject. I will be pleased to respond to your questions and participate in the discussion.”


4/11/91, Copy of a letter to Packard from Rick Boucher, Chairman, Subcommittee on Science inviting him to appear before the committee to discuss the subject of the Indirect Costs of University Research. He attaches a summary statement of  the purpose of the hearing.

4/16/91, Copy of a letter to Packard from D. Allan Bromley who co-chaired a Panel on the Health of U.S. Colleges and Universities with Packard in 1984-1986. Dr. Bromley gives his thoughts on the matter under consideration, and encloses excerpts from various reports.

5/6/91, Copy of a letter from Packard to Chairman Boucher and Members of the Subcommittee. Packard comments on several issues which were discussed at the hearing which, he says, need clarification.


He says “There seemed to be general agreement that a fixed rate for administrative overhead would be desirable. There was a suggestion that it should contain a cost of living factor.” Packard points out that since the fixed rate would be based on the actual direct costs at the various universities involved the issue of cost of living would be automatically built in. So the fixed cost rate should not have a cost of living factor.


“There was also the suggestion that this fixed rate should be subject to negotiation by universities which considered it unfair. I would strongly oppose this position. One of the most important arguments for a fixed rate is to eliminate the extensive auditing and negotiating about administrative overhead costs and charges. This would save both the Federal government and the universities millions of dollars every year; dollars that are spent under the present system and are a total waste.”


Packard goes into considerable detail on how the matter of depreciation might be handled. “The problem,” he says, “comes from the fact that federal contracts provide for depreciation whereas most universities have no depreciation costs.”


“The depreciation allowances on government contracts are generally paid into the general funds of the university. As one Stanford study admitted ‘…these funds play an extremely important role as a source of income to the Operating Budget.’ I do not think Stanford’s situation is different from most universities. Furthermore, this has been done with the cooperation of the ONR as well as other funding agencies.


“This committee should not consider it fundamentally wrong for the Federal Government to underwrite some of the operating costs of our universities. That is a subject you must address. If you agree, the only issue is whether there is a better way for this to be done.


“If you agree, I would make this recommendation. All depreciation allowances which do not go into debt service should be allocated to a special building account and should not go to the general fund account. Allocations from this building fund account should be applied to new research buildings and equipment or major renovations of research facilities…..”


“Anything that can be done to deal with this problem in a realistic way will cost the Federal Government more money. If the Federal Government is not willing to provide more money to support this nation’s universities, there is only one possible outcome – American universities will have to retrench.


“This is the basic decision this committee has to address. Should the Federal Government provide more money to support our universities or not. I personally do not think retrenchment would necessarily be a disaster.


“I am quite sure that implementing the recommendations I have given you will allow the American taxpayer to receive more value for the federal dollars that are provided, and my recommendations are more important if the overall decision is not to increase the funding.


“A satisfactory solution will be difficult at best. It will be impossible if the pork barrel propensities of the members of the Congress cannot be brought into control.”


7/1/91, Letter to Packard from Roland W. Schmitt, President, Ressselaer University, discussing the issues addressed by the committee.


February, 1986, Copy of the bound report “Report of the White House Science Science Council Panel on the Health of U.S. Colleges and Universities. The Panel was chaired by David Packard and D. Allan Bromley



Newspaper clippings. These discuss various actions being taken by governmental agencies due to the perceived abuses by Stanford and other universities.


4/23/91, San Jose Mercury News

4/26/91, San Jose Mercury News

4/26/91, The Stanford Daily



Box 5, Folder 39C – General Speeches


May 13, 1991 – Remarks Before the Computer and Business Manufacturers Association

At their 75 Anniversary Event, Washington D.C.


5/13/91,  Copy of typed text of speech



Packard says he was asked by John Pickett, President of the Association to join them for dinner, and his only task would be to introduce Secretary Mosbacher – but he was told he could make a few remarks on his own if he wished. He proceeds to take advantage of this invitation, and his subject is the abuses in overhead charges from many research universities. He tells the story much as he did in the statement to the House Subcommittee described in the above speech dated April 25, 1991. Since the material is essentially the same it is not repeated again here.



Box 5, Folder 39D – General Speeches


May 20, 1991, The Health of U.S. Research Colleges and Universities, location not given


5/20/91, Copy of typewritten text of speech. This is again the same speech as given April 25, 1991 and is not repeated here.



Box 5, Folder 39E – General Speeches


June 27, 1991, Remarks at the Reception of the Marine Board at the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey, CA


6/27/91, Copy of typewritten outline of speech


Since the speech is typed in outline form, the description here is broadened a little to provide more continuity.


Packard says he is humble to be speaking to such a distinguished group.


He says his interest in marine science began about 14 years ago with the development of the Monterey Bay Aquarium.


“The oceans are the most important frontier and we do not know as much as we should about them. At the Aquarium we concluded that unmanned remotely operated deep sea vehicles were the most efficient way to explore the oceans.


“Space based systems are also important for ocean research as they can also be unmanned and remotely operated.


“Computers are also important tools but not enough is known about modeling large systems and we do not have adequate input data.


“Environmental issues are overcharged with emotion and risk


“MBARI [Marine Bay Aquarium Research Institute] was founded to apply the latest technology to measure and study marine technology. Monterey Bay is an ideal location to develop and apply technology and I think we have made a good start in the past three and a half years.


“I am most pleased that Peter Brewer has agreed to be our Executive Director. He has been here since the first of the year and he is off to a very good start.


“Now we will have a brief presentation of some of the work we are doing. Mike Lee was involved in the acquisition and outfitting of our ROV. Bruce Robison is doing research on the marine biology of the mid water stream. His work has been to about 1500 feet and he still will be working at deeper levels in the months ahead.


“After the presentation we can respond to some questions.”



Box 5, Folder 40 – General Speeches


August 1, 1991, Hearing on NASA’s Midlife Crisis: Context for Reform, before the House of Representatives Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight, Committee on Science, Space and Technology, Washington D.C.


8/1/91, Typewritten text of Packard’s remarks to the Subcommittee.


Packard says he is pleased to be able to present his views on how the recommendations of the President’s Blue Ribbon Commission on Defense Management [which he chaired]– might apply to the management problems of NASA. See speech dated March 26, 1986 for complete list of speeches covering work of the Commission.


“The final report of the Commission was submitted to the President,” Packard says, “on June 30, 1986.” The recommendations which I believe might be useful to this Sub-Committee are covered in an Interim Report to the President, dated February 28, 1986, and in my foreword of the main report. [See Packard speech May 1, 1986 to American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics]”


“The most important recommendation of the entire report was that the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs (JCS) should be designated as the principal uniformed military advisor to the President, and that the position of a four-star Vice Chairman should be established as the sixth member of the JCS.  The responsibility of the Vice-Chairman is to provide a channel for commands to and reports from the Commanders-in-Chief of the Unified ands Specified Commands (CINCS) to the Chairmen of the JCS.


“This recommendation was put into law by the Goldwater-Nichols act of 1986. I consider this the most important action to improve defense management since World War II because it made it possible to manage the entire military establishment in a coherent way. This made it possible for the President, the Secretary of Defense, the Chairman of the JCS and the commander of the forces in the field to bring all of our military strength, active and reserve personnel and equipment, from all four services, together in the most effective joint operation possible. The brilliant victory of Desert Storm would not have been possible without this important action.


“It is not clear to me how this lesson might be applied to the current management problems of NASA except to say that unless the divergent elements on NASA can be brought together in a strong uniform commitment to an appropriate goal, for every project undertaken by NASA, there can be no real improvement in the management of NASA. The APOLLO program had such a commitment, by any ordinary standard it was a mission impossible, but I can not recall anyone, even among those who knew the tremendous technical challenges, risks as we now call them, who had any doubts about our ability to land a man on the moon. That kind of a commitment must be established to support whatever projects NASA undertakes for the future. If this is not done NASA will simply go on from a Midlife Crisis to an Old Age Status as just another Federal Bureaucracy.”


Saying that there are other recommendation in the Defense Management Report that have relevance for NASA, Packard quotes form his foreword to the report: ‘The Commission’s recommendations are intended to help establish strong centralized policies that are both sound in themselves and rigidly adhered to throughout. In any large organization policies must be executed through discrete structures…..this requires that we cultivate resilient centers of management excellence dedicated to advancing (NASA’s) overall goals and objectives.’


Packard says he will respond to written questions submitted by the Sub-Committee:


The first question asks for a definition of ‘risk’ and asks how such risk could be allocated between public and private sectors.


Packard says he has had considerable trouble with ‘risk’ as used in government contracting. “I do not recall” he says, “thinking about risk until I came to the Department of Defense in 1969. I managed [at HP] the development of hundreds of new products at the frontier of technology and I can recall only a few that were not successful. Our management program had a tight coupling between development, manufacturing, and marketing and we made trade-off’s between cost, performance and time to market from the beginning to the end of the project. The cost of the new product development almost always ended up higher than the original estimate, and it usually took longer. We did not consider this a risk to the success of the program but rather a management problem.


“After a very short time at the Pentagon I realized the real problem was that the defense contractors and the defense buyers were simply playing games with each other. The defense contractors were making bids that were lower than what they knew the costs were likely to be. Both were playing games with the Congress to get a program approved by submitting cost proposals which they knew were too low at the time they were submitted. The ‘risk’ was that they might not be bailed out.”


Packard says he thinks the optimal solution would be “to hold the contractors strictly responsible for the technical integrity of the product, and in the end the government will have to pay the bill. The Hubble space Telescope is a good example. As I understand the situation, the contractor failed to do a rather simple test that would have identified the problem so that it could be corrected before launch. The contractor should have received a severe penalty for such a failure; even one that might have put him out of business.


“Our Defense Management Report does place a great deal of emphasis on contractor self-government. The Congress would not accept our recommendations on this issue. I did not then, and do not now, see this as eliminating government oversight. I think that infractions of self government by contractors should carry such heavy penalties that they would have to become self policing. This would be in my opinion the best way to allocate these responsibilities between the public and the private sectors.”


The next two questions submitted by the sub-committee  were ‘Please describe for the Subcommittee your findings on the long-range planning process employed by the Department of Defense, the President and the Congress and its effect on decisions reached in the budget process……’ And the next: ‘How do Congress and the Executive branch help and hinder Government managers.? ‘


Packard says “There has been too much micromanagement of defense programs by both the Congress and the office of the Secretary of Defense.

“We recommend more use of prototyping in defense programs. This gives the contractor complete freedom to make tradeoffs between cost and performance. While it is not practical to prototype very large programs, important parts of such programs can be prototyped.


“We recommend more use of commercial products in all defense projects. Because of the rapid progress of advanced technology in a number of fields, such as large scale integrated circuits, commercial products have much higher reliability and much lower cost than products developed to military specification. This also applies to components used in NASA projects.


“The use of commercial components was strongly opposed by the bureaucracy in DoD because it would eliminate the need for many people who have been involved in this work in the past.”


Next the Subcommittee had asked for comments on the changes that had been advocated by the Defense Management Commission  – were they fully implemented, if not why not, and how might their recommendations change to fit NASA’s situation where they buy limited quantities of items.


Packard responds saying that the most important recommendations were fully implemented through the Goldwater-Nichols legislation. As to the purchase of limited quantities, Packard says he doesn’t “…think the fact that NASA buys a limited number of items would change our recommendations. It makes the purchase of commercial items more important because the savings would be larger.”


Next, the Subcommittee wanted to know ‘…what elements of total quality management philosophy could be implemented within the limits of government management?’


“That is what my foreword to the report is all about. The centers of management excellence which I recommend could not be excellent unless they fully embodied total quality of  management.”


That was the end of Packard’s testimony.


1991 – Hewlett Speeches

Box 3, Folder 53 – General Speeches


December 17, 1991 – Egon Loebner Book Reception, Palo Alto, CA


12/17/91, Copy of Hewlett’s comments on the occasion of the “Book Reception” for Egon Loebner who died December 30, 1989.


Hewlett says “It is hard to give a tribute to Egon Loebner that has not already been given.  He was of such a magnificent mind that he stimulated all round him. He was one of the most prolific men that I have had the pleasure to know.”


Hewlett calls Loebner the “father” of HP’s optoelectronics program,


On leave to the U.S. Government, Hewlett tells how Loebner was appointed to the USSR as Attache for Science and Technology, overseeing some 1300 joint research projects between the USSR and the U.S. To keep track of all these projects he turned to computer data base management. And when he returned to HP he changed to the field of computers and information management.


“While working half-time at HP,” Hewlett says Loebner “took eight computer courses at Stanford. He became interested in neutral networks and did a scholarly paper on the subject for the IEEE.”


Hewlett tells how, in 1985 Loebner was diagnosed as having a rare form of Epithelial cancer. He says “Not much was known about the disease and I remember Egon coming into my office saying that he was dissatisfied with the lack of knowledge and intended to study what was known about the disease and ultimately he devised his down regimen of treatment. I think he was the only patient ever to get invited to lecture on his illness to doctors at the Stanford Medical Hospital.


“In his lifetime, he published 50 papers in bionics, biophysics, chemistry, cognitive science, computational linguistics, electronics, human factors, information displays, materials science, optics, physics and telecommunications.”


Hewlett quotes from a recent letter Egon wrote to ‘My friends at HP,’ wherin he commented ‘I have not always seen eye to eye…with those management policies that in my view departed significantly from the spirit of what I understood to be the HP Way….’ And finishes with ‘It has been a privilege being part of our HP family. I am sure that many of you will try to ensure it remains as long as possible the special place it has been for 50 years.’’


10/25/91, Copy of a letter from Eugenie Prime to Joel Birnbaum, HP Lab Director. The letter initiates plans for a tribute to Egon Loebner.

12/12/91, Letter from Lorine Hall to Mollie Yoshshizumi, summarizing plans for the “book reception.” Copies of biographical articles about Egon are enclosed.

12/17/91, Copy of the invitation to join “HP Labs in celebrating the publication of The Selected Papers of Egon Loebner.”

12/20/91, Copy of a letter from Cheryl Ritchie to Frank Carrubba saying they are planning to publicize the letter Loebner wrote “to his friends” at HP. A copy of the full text of Egon’s letter is enclosed, along with a note from Dave Packard saying it should be printed in Measure.

Undated, Copy of a story of his release from Auschwitz, written by Egon Loebner.

12/17/91, Copy of a tribute given by HP Lab Director Frank Carrubba.

Undated, copy of an unsigned tribute

2/26/90, Copy of a tribute from “EGLY”

2/16/90, Copy of tribute from Paul Greene

8/15/48, Copy of a letter to Loebner from Albert Einstein apparently in response to a letter from Loebner discussing career alternatives