1985 – HP Journal Index

January 1985 v. 36 n.1

Cover: Miniature Optical Bench from the HP 8150A

Optical Stimulus and Receivers for Parametric Testing in Fiber Optics. An optical power source and an optical pulse power meter, both calibrated and programmable, provide reliable device and system testing for the expanding field of fiber optics, by Achim Eckert, Wolfgang Schmid, pg 4-7. 8150A, 8151A.

Handling Fiber Optic Components, by Wolfgang Schmid, pg 6

A Precise, Programmable 850-nm Optical Signal Source. Modulate the output using the internal pulse/function generator or your own external source, by Klaus Hoeing, Bernhard Flade, Wolfgang Schmid, Rainer Eggert, pg 7-18. 8150A.

Laser Safety Practices, pg 8

A Versatile, Programmable Optical Pulse Power Meter. There’s a choice of optical heads for operation at 550 to 950 nm or 950 to 1750 nm, by Werner Berkel, Michael Goder, Josef Becker, Wilfried Pless, Bernd Maisenbacher, Volker Eberle, Hans Huning, pg 18-27. 8151A, 81511A.

An Optical Receiver for 550 to 950nm. This versatile front end expands the measurement capabilities of electronic test equipment into the fiber optic domain, by Gerd Koffmane, Michael Fleischer-Reumann, Emmerich Muller, pg 27-29. 81519A, 8151A.

Optical Standards. Precise secondary standards had to be built to test a new line of instruments, by Joachim Vobis, Werner Berkel, pg 29-30. 8151A, 8150A.

Authors January 1985: Achim Eckert, Bernhard Flade, Wolfgang Schmid, Klaus Hoeing, Rainer Eggert, Hans Huning, Volker Eberle, Josef [Jo] Becker, Michael Goder, Bernd Maisenbacher, Wilfried Pless, Werner Berkel, Emmerich Muller, Michael Fleischer-Reumann, Gerd Koffmane, Joachim Vobis, pg 31-32

February 1985 v.36 n.2

Cover: Magnetostatic-wave delay-line filter

HP TechWriter: Illustrated Documents for Engineers. This document editing software package for HP 9000 Series 200 Computers electronically merges text with pictures from many HP graphics software packages. Text and graphics appear on the screen as they will in the printed document, by Roy E. Anderson, Elaine C. Regelson, pg 4-9

HP TechWriter Security, pg 8

Magnetostatic-Wave Devices for Microwave Signal Processing. By locally perturbing the magnetic dipoles formed by spinning electrons in thin ferrimagnetic films, a propagating wave can be initiated. Devices based on this principle can be used to process microwave signals, by Waguih S. Ishak, Kok-Wai Chang, pg 10-20. MSW, YIG.

Magnetic Resonance and YIG-Sphere Devices, pg 12

Spin Waves and Magnetostatic Waves, pg 14

Disc Caching in the System Processing Units of the HP 3000 Family of Computers. Disc caching uses the excess main memory and processor capacity of the high-end HP 3000s to eliminate a large portion of the disc access delays encountered in an uncached system, by Alan J. Kondoff, John R. Busch, pg 21-39

Disc Cache Performance Tools, pg 23-24

The MPE-IV Kernel, pg 25

Authors February 1985: Roy E. Anderson, Elaine C. Regelson, Waguih S. Ishak, Kok-Wai [Bill] Chang, John R. Busch, Alan J. Kondoff, pg 40

March 1985 v.36 n.3

Cover: HP Maintenance Management, a software package for the HP 3000 Computer

HP Maintenance Management: A new Approach to Software Customer Solutions. Suggested by an HP customer and designed with extensive customer feedback, this HP 3000 software helps cut the cost of equipment maintenance, by Joseph L. Malin, Irving Bunton, Jr., pg 4-10

The Need for Plant Maintenance, pg 9

Development of High-Performance, Half-Inch Tape Drive. The design of a low-cost, high-density tape drive for backup of large amounts of on-line computer system memory requires a sophisticated combination of technologies and careful project planning. This new drive’s greatly improved reliability reduces maintenance costs and downtime, by Richard T. Turley, Hoyle L. Curtis, pg 11-16. 7978A.

LSI Simplifies Tape Drive Electronic Design, by Jimmy L. Shafer, pg 13

System Integration, by Richard T. Turley, pg 15

Write and Read Recovery Systems for a Half-Inch Tape Drive. Besides the necessary erasing, reading and writing functions, it is important to protect the data from accidental alteration or destruction, by Wayne T. Gregory, pg 16-18. 7978A.

Digital Formatting and Control Electronics for Half-Inch Tape Data Storage. Encoding and decoding data transparently in either GCR or PE formats require fairly complex operations. LSI circuits simplify some of the design problems, by Jimmy L. Shafer, 19-24. 7978A.

Streaming Tape Drive Hardware Design. Two microprocessors are required – one for master control and the other for servo control, by David J. Van Maren, Robert D. Emmerich, John W. Dong, pg 25-29. 7978A.

Firmware for a Streaming Tape Drive. Support of queued operations keeps the tape streaming and handles all interactions with the user or the host computer, by Alan J. Richards, John A. Ruf, Bradfred W. Culp, Virgil K. Russon, David W. Ruska, pg 29-31. 7978A.

Authors March 1985: Irving [Irv] Bunton, Jr., Joseph [Joe] L. Malin, Hoyle L. Curtis, Richard [Rick] T. Turley, Wayne [Tom] T. Gregory, Jimmy [Jim] L. Shafer, Robert [Diamond Bob] D. Emmerich, John W. Dong, David [Dave] J. Van Maren, David [Dave] W. Ruska, Bradfred [Brad] W. Culp, Virgil K. Russon, John A. Ruf, Alan J. Richards, Sterling J. Mortensen, Donald [Don] A. DiTommaso, John C. Becker, Craig L. Miller, K. Douglas [Doug] Gennetten, Mark E. Wanger, David [Dave] J. Schmeling, Walter [Walt] L. Auyer, Charles [Chuck] H. McConica, Mark L. Gembarowski, pr 31-33

Low-Cost, Highly Reliable Tape Backup for Winchester Disc Drives. Designed for use on small to midrange computer systems, this new quarter-inch cartridge tape drive packs up to 67 megabytes onto a single cartridge, by Donald A. DiTommaso, Sterling J. Mortensen, John C. Becker, pg 34-36. 9144A.

A Design Methodology for Today’s Customers, by Donald A. DiTommaso, pg 36

Tape/Disc Controller Serves Integrated Peripherals. A fixed disc drive or a quarter-inch tape drive or both can operate in a common environment, by Craig L. Miller, Mark L. Gembarowski, pg 37-39. 9144A.

Cartridge Tape Data Integrity Ensured at Five Levels. The drive has read after write, error correction, and media monitoring capabilities, by K. Douglas Gennetten, pg 39-43. 9144A.

Controlling the Head/Tape Interface. It’s critical to data integrity and unit-to-unit interchangeability, by Charles H. McConica, David J. Schmeling, Mark E. Wanger, Walter L. Auyer, pg 44-47. 9144A.

Software Methodology Preserves Consistency and Creativity. Concepts used include hierarchy charts, structured programming, top-down design, structured walkthroughs, and structured analysis, by Mark L. Gembarowski, pg 47-48. 9144A.

April 1985  v.36.n.4

Cover: HP 2392A Display Terminal

A Low-Cost Compact, Block-Mode Computer Terminal. The design emphasizes ergonomics and very high reliability as well as low cost and compactness, by Michele Prieur, Jean-Louis Chapuis, pg 4-7. 2392A.

A Reliable, Low-Cost Keyboard Interface, by Khambao Panyasak, pg 7

Mechanical Design of a Low-Cost Terminal. Integral display tilt and swivel mechanisms and a detached low-profile keyboard help it adapt to users’ needs, by Michel Cauzid, pg 8-9. 2392A.

VLSI Design in the HP 2392A Terminal. The cost of the CRT control function was reduced by 80% by integrating it in a single VLSI chip, by Jean-Jacques Simon, pg 9-16

A Fast Gate Array Companion for CRT Controller, by Freddie Barbut, pg 13-14

How to Scroll Smoothly, by Richard Brabant, pg 15-16

Fully Automated Production of Display Terminal Printed Circuit Assemblies. DIP and axial inserters install 103 components and a six-axis robot inserts 41 more, by Christian-Marcel Dulphy, pg 16-17. 2392A.

A Low-Cost, Reliable Analog Video Display Terminal Design. A small cabinet with no fan made heat dissipation a major concern, by Rene Martinelli, Jean Yves Chatron, pg 18-22. 2392A.

Authors April 1985: Jean-Louis Chapuis, Michele Prieur, Michel Cauzid, Jean-Jacques Simon, Christian-Marcel Dulphy, Jean-Yves Chatron, Rene Martinelli, Martin L. Stone, Todd L. Russell, Peter L. Ma, Jeffrey [Jeff] W. Groenke, Hatem E. Mostafa, Tammy V. Herr, David [Dave] C. Tribolet, Kenneth [Ken] A. Regas, Thomas [Tom] J. Halpenny, pg 23-24

An Intelligent Plotter for High-Throughput, Unattended Operation. This plotter quickly produces multiple copies of high-quality graphics output for use in presentations and reports. Its high throughput and automatic cut-sheet feeder make it useful for unattended operation in shared environments, by Todd L. Russell, Peter L. Ma, Jeffery W. Groenke, Martin L. Stone, pg 25-29. 7550A.

Low-Mass, Low-Cost Pen-Lift Mechanism for High-Speed Plotting. An adaptive pen up/down cycle reduces pen nib wear without sacrificing plotting speed, by Tammy V. Herr, Hatem E. Mostafa, pg 29-30. 7550A.

The HP 7550A X-Y Servo: State-of-the-Art Performance on a Budget. A 32-bit microprocessor closes three servo loops in this plotter using position and velocity feedback, by Kenneth A. Regas, Thomas J. Halpenny, David C. Tribolet, pg 31-34

Firmware Provides Simple and Powerful Plotter Operation. Polygon area fill, downloadable character sets, and replot and vector buffers are some of the key enhancements, by Thomas J. Halpenny, pg 34-36. 7550A.

May 1985 v.36 n.5

Cover: a closeup view of the orifice plate of a HP’s ThinkJet printer

History of Thinkjet Printhead Development. The principle was simple: ejecting a minute droplet of ink by momentarily boiling the ink. Applying it to the design of a commercially viable disposable ink-jet printhead required clever and persistent engineering, by Niels Nielsen, pg 4-10

Mass-Producing Thermal Ink-Jet Printheads, pg 7

Preventing Hydraulic Crosstalk, pg 9

An Inexpensive, Portable Ink-Jet Printer Family. Using a disposable ink cartridge and printhead, this low-cost family of printers offers personal computer users high-quality printing in a portable package. Four common I/O interfaces are supported by various members of the family, by Thomas R. Braun, Cheryl V. Katen, pg 11-20. ThinkJet, 2225.

Alignment of Bidirectional Text, by Dave Lowe, Robert P. Callaway, pg 13

Printhead Interconnect, by Roy T. Buck, pg 14

Custom VLSI Microprocessor System, by Ray L. Pickup, pg 16

Home Switch Design, by Andrew D. Sleeper, pg 18-19

Thermodynamics and Hydrodynamics of the Thermal Ink Jets. Clever modeling and computer simulations were done to understand and predict the behavior of a new printing device, by Ross R. Allen, William R. Knight, John D. Meyer, pg 21-27. ThinkJet.

Development of the Thin-Film Structure for the ThinkJet Printhead. Using microscopic thin-film devices to vaporize ink for ink-jet printing imposes severe electrical, thermal, mechanical and chemical stresses on the film structures, by Eldurkar V. Bhaskar, J. Stephen Aden, pg 27-33

Where the Ink Hits the Paper…, by David Hackleman, pg 32

The ThinkJet Orifice Plate: A Part with Many Functions. This tiny electroformed part conducts ink from the reservoir and channels it to an array of integral minute orifices where it is selectively vaporized to eject ink droplets for printing, by Gary L. Siewell, William R. Boucher, Paul H. McCleland, pg 33-37

Electroforming, pg 35

Viewpoints: Managing the Development of a New Technology. How you do it may determine the commercial viability of a breakthrough technology, by Frank L. Cloutier, pg 38-39

Authors May 1985: Niels J. Nielsen, Thomas [Tom] R. Braun, Cheryl V. Katen, William [Bill] R. Knight, Ross R. Allen, John D. Meyer, Eldurkar V. Bhaskar, J. Stephen [Steve] Aden, Paul H. McClelland, William [Bill] R. Boucher, Gary L. Siewell, Frank L. Cloutier, pg 39-40

June 1985 v.36 n.6

Cover: Dot matrix printbar in action

A New Family of Dot Matrix Line Printers. These impact printers are designed for EDP and manufacturing applications. Speeds available are 300, 600, and 900 lines per minute, by Bryce E. Jeppsen, pg 4-6. 2563A, 2565A, 2566A.

Design for Reliability in the HP 256X Family of Line Printers, by Everett M. Baily, pg 5

Dot Matrix Printbar Design and Manufacturing. A new captured-hammer printbar system meets performance needs from 300 to 900 lines per minute, by John S. Craven, pg 6-9. 256X.

Shuttle System and Packaging of Low-Cost, High-Reliability, 300-lpm Line Printer. Simplicity and reliability were the overriding design requirements, by Jeffrey M. Lantz, Ben B. Tyson, pg 9-12. 2563A.

Mechanical Design of a Family of High-Speed Impact Line Printers. Dot placement accuracy must be maintained with the printbar oscillating at 60 Hz and the paper moving at 900 lpm, by George V. McIlvaine, Daniel D. Wheeler, Peter Gysling, Stephen L. Testardi, pg 13-18. 2365A, 2566A.

Computer Modeling of a Paper Drive Mechanism, by Peter Gysling, pg 15-16

Resonance Search Technique, by Gary W. Green, pg 17

Cost-Effective, Versatile Line Printer Electronics and Firmware. Here’s the nerve center that does the formatting, sequencing, controlling and communicating, by Phillip R. Luque, Donald K. Wadley, Philip Gordon, 18-23. 256X.

Vector Graphics for Dot Matrix Printers, by Sharon E. Jones, Alvin D. Scholten, pg 20

Printer Command Language Provides Feature Set Standard for HP Printers. Now applications written for one HP printer won’t have to be rewritten to run on another, by Ernest F. Covelli, David L. Price, Von L. Hansen, pg 23-25. PCL.

Authors June 1985: Bryce E. Jeppsen, John S. Craven, Ben B. Tyson, Jeffrey [Jeff] M. Lantz, Daniel [Dan] D. Wheeler, Peter [Pete] Gysling, George V. McIlvaine, Stephen [Steve] L. Testardi, Donald [Don] K. Wadley, Philip [Phil] Gordon, Phillip [Phil] R. Luque, David [Dave] L. Price, Ernest [Ernie] F. Covelli, Von L. Hansen, Harry E. Kellogg, Jonathan [Jon] E. Bale, pg 25-26

Native Language Support for Computer Systems. NLS for the HP 3000 and other HP computers provides hardware and operating system facilities that make application programs easy to translate into other languages, by Jonathan E. Bale, Harry E. Kellogg, pg 27-32. Localization.

Native Language Collating Sequences for Europe, pg 30

July 1985 v.36 n.7

Cover: HP 4953A Protocol Analyzer (illustrated map)

A Protocol Analyzer for EDP Centers and Field Service. It’s the latest member of a family that also includes a low-cost portable analyzer for field service and a high-speed BASIC-programmable analyzer for data communications research and development, by Aileen C. Appleyard, Roger W. Ruhnow, William Grant Grovenburg, Wayne M. Angevine, pg 4-11. 4955A, 4951A, 4953A.

How Protocol Analysis Can Help, pg 5

Protocol Analyzer Software Development, by William Grant Grovenburg, pg 10

Simple Architecture Provides High Performance for Protocol Analysis. A 68000 microprocessor controls the system. A trap machine provides powerful triggering capabilities, by Roger W. Ruhnow, Stephen H. Witt, pg 12-18. 4953A.

Protocol Analyzer Power Supply Design, by Stephen M. Ernst, pg 14

Protocol Analyzer Mechanical Design, by Ken Krebs, pg 15

Making a Protocol Analyzer Producible and Serviceable, by John R. Rader, pg 17

Serial Data Acquisition and Simulation for a High-speed Protocol Analyzer. The front end is a dedicated processor that interfaces the line under test to the system processor, by Dorothy J. Yackle, Mark D. Keisling, Elizabeth Gates Moore, David B. Karlin, pg 18-24. 4953A.

A Low-Cost, Portable Field Service Protocol Analyzer. It’s menu and file compatible with HP’s higher-performance analyzers and has many of the same capabilities, by Vonn L. Black, Alan Delwiche, Stephen B. Tursich, Chris L. Odell, pg 24-29. 4951A.

Remote Monitoring and Control of Semiconductor Processing. This addition to HP’s Semiconductor Productivity Network acts as a host computer to IC processing equipment, providing remote control and data gathering for fabrication personnel, by Wesley H. Higaki, pg 30-34. SPN.

SECS, pg 33. SEMI Equipment Communications Standard.

Authors July 1985: William Grant Grovenburg, Aileen C. Appleyard, Wayne M. Angevine, Roger W. Ruhnow, Stephen [Steve] H. Witt, Elizabeth [Beth] Gates Moore, David [Dave] B. Karlin, Mark D. Keisling, Dorothy [Dotty] J. Yackle, Alan Delwiche, Vonn L. Black, Chris L. Odell, Stephen [Steve] B. Tursich, Wesley [Wes] H. Higaki, pg 35-36

August 1985 v. 36 n.8

Cover: Spectrum of HP’s next generation of computers ranging from desktop workstations to mainframe class machines

Beyond RISC: High-Precision Architecture. An introduction to scaling, complexity and HP’s new computer architecture, by William S. Worley, Jr., Joel S. Birnbaum, pg 4-9. Spectrum program.

Architecture Genealogy, pg 5

Authors August 1985: William [Bill] S. Worley, Jr., Joel S. Birnbaum, Michael [Mike] B. Aken, William [bill] M. Spaulding, David [Dave] A. Bartle, Katherine [Katie] F. Potter, Reed I. White, pg 10

Development of a Two-Channel Frequency Synthesizer. Combining two independent synthesizers, flexible modulation, and control circuits in a single package, this instrument can generate two-phase, two-tone, pulse, frequency hopping, and swept signals, by Michael B. Aken, William M. Spaulding, pg 11-18. 3326A.

Discrete Sweep, by Michael B. Aken, pg 15

Two-Channel Synthesizer Phase Calibration, by Michael B. Aken, pg 17

Applications of a Two-Channel Synthesizer. Multiphase test capability, a frequency agile discrete sweep and other features add up to exceptional versatility, by Michael B. Aken, pg 19-21. 3326A.

Measuring Intermodulation Distortion with a Two-Channel Synthesizer, by Ben Zarlingo, pg 20

Synthesizer Firmware for User Interface and Instrument Control. A friendly and reliable user interface was the primary objective, by Katherine F. Potter, David A. Bartle, pg 21-24. 3326A.

A High-Level Active Mixer. When noise considerations are properly addressed, active designs have some distinct advantages, by William M. Spaulding, pg 25-29. 3326A.

Automated Test Data Collection for IC Manufacturing. Collecting, storing and analyzing data from a variety of test equipment and CPUs that use different formats, languages, and protocols is made possible by this software product for HP’s Semiconductor Productivity Network, by Reed I. White, pg 30-36. SPN.

EA-10 Data Analysis System, pg 32

September 1985 v.36 n.9

Cover: HP 3000 Series 37 Computer

VLSI Delivers Low-Cost, Compact HP 3000 Computer System. This entry-level, user-installable computer system runs the same software as the largest HP 3000, but fits under a table and is much quieter than a typewriter, by Frank E. La Fetra, Jr., James H. Holl, pg 4-7. Series 37.

High-Volume Test Strategy, by Dennis Bowers, pg 6

Simplicity in a Microcoded Computer Architecture. Simplicity means more efficient use of silicon without sacrificing performance, by Frederic C. Amerson, pg 7-12. HP 3000 Series 37

Using a Translator for Creating Readable Microcode, by Skip La Fetra, pg 10

Booting 64-Bit WCS Words from a 32-Bit-Wide ROM Word, by Skip La Fetra, Chris Shaker, pg 12

Simulation Ensures Working First-Pass VLSI Computer System. A simulator with the improbably name “Faster Than Light” was the essential tool, by John R. Obermeyer, Malcolm E. Woodward, Paul L. Rogers, Patria G. Alvarez, Greg L. Gilliam, pg 13-16. HP 3000 Series 37.

Creative Ways to Obtain Computer System Debug Tools. The ways include an off-the-shelf microcomputer and a virtual software debugging panel, by William M. Parrish, Eric B. Decker, Edwin G. Wong, pg 17-22. HP 3000 Series 37.

The Role of a Programmable Breakpoint Board, by Mehraban Jam, pg 20

Virtual Microcode Memory, by Chris Shaker, pg 22

New Cardiograph Family with ECG Analysis Capability. These three new HP cardiographs, in addition to recording traditional ECG waveforms, can perform differing levels of measurements and analysis to aid diagnosis of heart behavior, by Peter H. Dorward, Steven A. Scampini, Robert H. Banta, Jr., pg 23-28. 4760.

ECG Storage and Transmission, by Charles C. Monroe, pg 24

Artifact Indication, pg 27

Computer-Aided ECG Analysis. Special signal processing and algorithms are required to detect various ECG abnormalities, by John C. Doue, Anthony G. Vallance, pg 29-34

ECG Criteria Language, pg 30-31

Pediatric Criteria, pg 34

Authors September 1985: Frank [Skip] E. La Fetra, Jr., James [Jim] H. Holl, Frederic [Rick] C. Amerson, Paul L. Rogers, Malcom [Woody] E. Woodward, Patria [Pat] G. Alvarez, John R. Obermeyer, Greg L. Gilliom, Edwin [Ed] G. Wong, William [Bill] M. Parrish, Eric B. Decker, Peter H. Dorward, Steven [Steve] A. Scampini, Robert [Bob] H. Banta, Jr., Anthony [Tony] G. Vallance, John C. Doue, pg 35-36

October 1985 v.36 n.9

Cover: Integral PC’s electroluminescent display

A Multitasking Personal Computer System for the Technical Professional. The Integral PC provides high-performance multitasking operation, mass storage, graphics and text output, and instrument I/O in a compact, transportable package, by Nelson A. Mills, Tim J. Williams, pg 4-6

Electronics System for a Transportable Computer. A clever memory manager and simple, low-cost system logic design are key elements, by David L. Kepler, James A. Espeland, pg 6-9. Integral PC.

Custom Graphics Processor Unit for the Integral PC. This special-purpose microprocessor can control the internal bit-mapped flat-panel display or external CRT monitors, by Dean M. Heath, pg 10-12

High-Quality Electroluminescent Display for a Personal Workstation. An energy-recovery drive scheme keeps power requirements below 15 watts, by Marvin L. Higgins, pg 12-17. Integral PC.

Mechanical Design of the Integral PC: Not Just Desktop Computer with a Handle. Able to fit under an airline seat, the package contains an ink-jet printer, a disc drive, a detachable keyboard, and space for an optional mouse, by Thomas A. Pearo, pg 18-22

Reducing Glare with Circular Polarizers, pg 21

A UNIX Operating System Adapted for a Technical Personal Computer. This approach eliminates the need for a hard disc and adds real-time priority to a multitasking operating system, by Ray M. Fajardo, Robert C. Cline, James R. Andreas, Andrew L Rood, pg 22-28. Integral PC.

A Friendly UNIX Operating System User Interface. A window manager and an adaptation of the Personal Applications Manager used in the HP 150 Computer make it simpler for the novice to use a UNIX multitasking system, by Jon A. Brewster, Karen S. Helt, James N. Phillips, 28-33. Integral PC.

Personal Applications Manager, by Brock Krizan, pg 30

Data Communications, by Fred Taft, pg 33-34

Printer and Plotter Drivers, pg 34-35

Authors October 1985: Nelson A. Mills, Tim J. Williams, James [Jim] A. Espeland, David [Dave] L. Kepler, Dean M. Heath, Marvin [Marv] L. Higgins, Thomas [Tom] A. Pearo,  James [Jim] R. Andreas, Andrew [Andy] L. Rood, Robert [Bob] C. Cline, Ray M. Fajardo, Karen S. Helt, James [Jay] N. Phillips, Jon A. Brewster, pg 35-36

November 1985 v.36 n.11

Cover: A Thin-film disc fabricated in the HP Laboratories

Thin-Film Memory Disc Development. Developing a new recording medium for disc memories required careful attention to the development and characterization of materials, processes and test systems, by Bruce F. Spenner, Charles C. Morehouse, David J. Bromley, Edward S. Murdock, Richard A. Baugh, James E. Opfer, Bangalore R. Natarajan, pg 4-10

M-H Loop Measurements, by Robin P. Giffard, Victor W. Hesterman, pg 6

A Laser Particle Scanner, by Richard E. Elder, pg 8

Dynamic Testing of Thin-Film Magnetic Recording Discs. A modular approach is a key element, by John Hodges, Keith S. Roskelley, Dennis R. Edson, pg 11-21

In-Line Sputtering Deposition System for Thin-Film Disc Fabrication. A sophisticated control system and physical design moves the discs from one deposition step to the next without exposing the discs to atmospheric conditions between steps, by George A. Drennan, Michael B. Jacobson, Robert J. Lawton, pg 21-25

Thin-Film Disc Reliability-the Conservative Approach. Wear, friction, and corrosion must be evaluated and controlled, by Stephan P. Howe, Paul Poorman, Clifford K. Day, C. Girvin Harkins, pg 25-31

Authors November 1985: David [Dave] J. Bromley, Charles [Chuck] C. Morehouse, Richard [Dick] Baugh, Edward [Ed] S. Murdock, James [Jim] E. Opfer, Bruce F. Spenner, Bangalore [Natu] R. Natarajan, John Hodges, Dennis R. Edson, Keith S. Roskelley, Robert [R. J. (Bob)] Lawton, Michael [Mike] B. Jacobson, George A. Drennan, C. Girvin Harkins, Stephan P. Howe, Clifford [Cliff] K. Day, Paul Poorman, Darrel R. Bloomquist, Richard [Rick] S. Seymour, Glenn E. Moore, Jr., Michael [Mike] C. Allyn, Peter R. Goglia, Scott R. Smay, pg 31-33

Manufacturing Thin-Film Discs. Optimizing disc fabrication has a major effect on disc drive product cost and quality, by Darrel R. Bloomquist, Glenn E. Moore, Jr., Richard S. Seymour, pg 34-35

Thin-Film Discs: Magnetic, Electrical, and Mechanical Design. When the magnetic and electrical parameters require a head to fly only 200 nm above a disc, surface smoothness becomes an important design parameter, by Michael C. Allyn, Peter R. Goglia, Scott R. Smay, pg 36-40

December 1985 v.36 n.12

Cover: SAWR and the HP 8642A/B

A High-Performance Signal Generator for RF Communications Testing. High-reliability design, extended calibration intervals, and fast calibration and repair maximize ATE system uptime. Spectral purity is exceptional, by Robert E. Burns, pg 4-6. 8642A, 8642B.

User Interface and Internal Controller for an RF Signal Generator. The power of a 68000 microprocessor makes the instrument friendly, both to the user and to automatic systems it may be part of, by Albert Einstein Lassiter, Charles R. Kogler, pg 6-9. 8642A/B.

Display Design, pg 9

Signal Generator Service Features Maximize Uptime. Built-in are self-tests and service features for fault location and field recalibration, by Michael T. Wende, pg 10-13. 8642A/B.

Electrically Erasabel PROM Storage for Calibration Data, pg 13

Internally Modular Signal Generator Mechanical Design. Each module is like a mini-instrument that is easily replaceable in the field, by Michael B. Jewell, Mark W. Johnson, pg 14-18. 8642A/B.

Wide-Frequency-Range Signal Generator Output Section Design. Output power amplification and control, amplitude modulation, and reverse power protection are handled here, by Marvin W. Wagner, Robert R. Collison, James B. Summers, Bryan D. Ratliff, pg 18-24. 8642A/B.

Signal Generator Frequency Synthesizer Design. Six phase-locked loops minimize phase noise and spurious outputs and provide high-accuracy, low distortion angle modulation, by Thomas R. Faulkner, Earl C. Herleikson, Ronald J. Mayer, Brian M. Miller, Mark A. Niemann, pg 24-31. 8642A/B.

Computer Analysis of Oscillator Loop Gain, Phase, and Q, pg 29

Audio Modulation Section for an RF Signal Generator. Included is a low-distortion, variable-modulation audio signal source, by Gary L. Tong, pg 31-35 . 8642A/B.

Index: Volume 36 January 1985 through December 1985. PART 1: Chronological Index, pg 36-37. PART 2: Subject Index, pg 38-40. PART 3: Model Number Index, pg 40. PART 4: Author Index, pg 41-42

Authors December 1985: Robert [Bob] E. Burns, Albert Einstein Lassiter, Charles [Chuck] R. Kogler, Michael [Mike] T. Wende, Mark W. Johnson, Michael [Mike] B. Jewell, Bryan D. Ratliff, Marvin [Marv] W. Wagner, Robert [Bob] R. Collison, James [Jim] B. Summers, Earl c. Herleikson, Ronald [Ron] J. Mayer, Brian M. Miller, Mark A. Niemann, Thomas [Tom] R. Faulkner, Gary L. Tong, pg 43-44

1985 – MEASURE Magazine

January-February 1985 A Peek Inside the Monterey Bay Aquarium

Monterey Bay Aquarium; Packard Family Foundation contributed $40 million over past eight years; largest aquarium in U.S.; HP people used as resources for advice on construction, audiovisual needs, security program; HP 3000 for standard business jobs, but emphasis on sea life, not technology; Packard designed machines to recreate effects of tides/waves. 3 6
HP in offices in Quebec and the initial challenge of doing business in both French and English; everyone in the office is bilingual; employees were provided French lessons at company’s expense. 7 9
HP’s first videoconferencing takes place at Cupertino site. 11
HP in Hong Kong; many doing business in Hong Kong as an economic springboard to the People’s Republic of China; Hong Kong concerned with discounts, fast startup, and saving face (by negotiating discounts and buying prestigious products); HP challenge is coming up with right solutions. 12 14
HP’s objectives from the 1950s compared with today; revised in 1981 to place emphasis on product quality, customer satisfaction, new product lines, safety and teamwork. 16 17
Business man in Alabama uses HP computers to design custom cross-stitch patterns. 18
Grateful Dead uses HP portable computer on the road to communicate with home base, write music; may use in future to create sounds and treated as another instrument. 18
HP computer used in Australian car race to record lap times, speed, distance. 19
HP 150 Touchscreen computer used in horse race, Swiss Driving Championship. 19
HP ships 500,000th HP 2392A terminal. 19
HP in Germany for 25 years; how its operation has evolved. 20-22
John Young evaluates operating results of FY84. 23
New products include HP JIT (Just in Time) software for HP 3000: HP 3562A dynamic signal analyzer; HEDS-7500 digital potentiometer; PageWriter cardiographs; HP 788354A neonatal monitor; HP 5988A gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer; HP 2566A and 2565A matrix line printers. 24

March-April 1985 How Women Manage at HP

Since equal opportunity legislation in 1964, HP made determined effort to recruit women; a small but growing number now hold executive-level positions; Shirley Hufstedler first woman on HP board of directors. (women, diversity) 3 7
HP Corporate Parts Center (CPC) in Mountain View, Calif.; stores more than 97,000 parts and ships virtually anywhere in the world. 8 9
Minnesota professors use portable HP computer to prepare database for lion research. 10
HP gets gold medal for HP 5890A gas chromatograph from Czechoslovak Socialist Republic’s fair. 10
ARCO Solar uses HP 2250 measurement and control processors and HP 1000 computers for solar power facility. 11
HP Touchscreen PCs featured in Digital Equipment Corp.’s Computer Museum in Boston. 11
Overhaul of organization chart; three officers retired and instead of replacing them, Executive Committee realigned various responsibilities and reporting relationships. 12-13
President’s Commission on Industrial Competitiveness, chaired by John Young, recommends ways for U.S. industry to meet growing competition from foreign companies, both in the U.S. and international markets. 14
Night shift at HP featured; about 4,500 employees in U.S. work night shift. 16-19.
Measure magazine does reader survey. 20
Bob Boniface retires from HP after 42 years. 21
John Young describes 10 strategic issues for 1985. 22 23
HP places fifth in Fortune’s 1984 survey of 250 large U.S. companies. 24
HP grants universities $50 million of engineering workstations and software. 24
HP grants $5 million cash and equipment to new Harvard Medical School program. 24

May-June 1985 Coming on Strong: HP in the Communications Business

HP increases attention on marketing as a process and reorganizes and elevates role of marketing; marcom enrolls in SRI program using psychographics called “Values and Lifestyles” (VALS) to evaluate audiences. 3 7
HP 260 minicomputer sold almost exclusively to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) who customize it with software for small business owners. 8 9
Open Line survey shows most HP employees feel positive about the company. 13 16
HP and communication business; with the breakup of AT&T there are new vendors and competition, and they in turn order HP test equipment; HP has own network. 14 17
John Young discusses business cycles; growth rate slowed mirroring industry trends. 18
Sunnyvale, Calif., creates Hazardous Response Unit and HP donates hazardous environment suits. 19
New products include TurboImage database management system; Access software; Integrap PC; HP 3055S software; HP 9000 Model 550; HP 7907A disc drive; HP 54200A/D logic analyzer. 19-20
Two new adult-patient monitors, HP 78353B and 78354A. 21Personal Software Division pitches 282 new software packages at New York’s Whitney Museum of Modern Art. 22
HP donates five-bed patient monitoring system to Navaho Monument Valley Hospital. 23
HP is 60th on Fortune magazines ranking of largest 500 companies. 23
HP donates desktop and handheld computer to San Diego Wild Animal Park to build database and analyze growth and behavior of condors and other captive birds. 24

July-August 1985 Working Together in a Country Divided: HP in South Africa

HP in South Africa; challenges of Black; at work they follow the HP way, outside they live under apartheid. (diversity) 3 7
Joel Birnbaum, vice president and director of HP Labs, sets high goals for R&D: “mission of technology is to improve society which it serves.” 8 11
Employees’ dress and how clothes reflect social, financial status, mood, etc. 12 15
John Young describes HP’s commitment to South Africa and cost control. 18
Interactive video is new technology for training. 19
HP-21 calculator is 10 years old. 19
HP provides computerized scoring for International Ice Dance Championships. 20
Introduction of central learning centers for HP customer engineers for training. 21
Signal Analysis Division winner of first U.S. Senate productivity award. 21

September-October 1985 Toxics: HP’s Battle to Keep the Environment Clean

HP addresses concerns about environment, industrial waste; actions taken to address issues: environmental audits, representatives to coordinate/share information, sharing best practices, staff to support and counsel divisions involved in local issues. 2 6
HP fleet of cars, about 8000, replaced yearly with new cars, which is cheaper; in 1983 agreement, Ford provides cars. 7
Yokogawa HP and rocket project; HP equipment widely used in NASDA—Japan’s NASA; satellite tracking network based on 22 HP 1000s. 11
HP facilities have employee garden plots. 12-15
John Young discusses emphasis on quality.
HP counting/analyzing European Basketball Championship using HP 3000 computer. 19
1959 product display photo; 204 then, 10,000 now. 19
UK annual report designed to show HP as creative company. 21
HP 85 computer monitors storage conditions for frozen fish industry in Canada. 21
HP 5510A laser transducer helps study changes in earth’s upper atmosphere in NASA experiment. 22
HP gas chromatograph used to sample blood of thoroughbred racehorses. 23
HP press conference in Moscow reported in Soviet newspaper. 24

November-December 1985 Personal Computers: What’s in the Cards?

Two years after HP introduces the 150 Touchscreen PC, HP released its IBM-compatible Vectra; outsider look at HP and the PC marketplace. 3 5
HP introduces VideoMagazine, an employee video program to complement existing print communications. 10 11
HP de Mexico helping to brighten Mexico’s economic picture; in last two years, HP in Mexico has seen 121 percent growth, mostly from HP 3000 business computers; earthquake in Mexico leaves four employees homeless. 12 15
Economic slump in Vancouver Division affects HP; companywide cost-cutting measures including cuts in pay. 16 17
John Young discusses factors that had effect on electronics industry: competitors, slowdown in capital spending, decreased government purchases, value of U.S. dollar. 18
HP 1000 computer used on SCARAB (Submersible Craft Assisting Repair and Burial) to translate sound signals to calculate position of “black box” from crashed Air India jet. 19
HP Germany holds conference for members of parliament to demonstrate how technology and innovation can solve social and environmental problems. 19
HP equipment used in Tour de France. 20
Maestro database of HP equipment owners helps retrieve stolen HP PCs. 21
HP’s “What If” advertising campaign informs buyers of HP’s commitment to U.S. business market. 21
HP 1000s used in Australia to track and analyze data about animal diseases. 22
New products include HP LaserJet Plus printer, CareView, ColorPro pen plotter, 2603A daisywheel printer, 1040M diode-array detection system, DesignCenter Series, Logic DesignStation, Personal Logic DesignStation. 22
Prince Philippe of Belgium visits HP facilities on West Coast. 23
Dakin, stuffed animal manufacturer, uses HP 3000 Series 42 for inventory control. 24

1985 – Packard Speeches

Box 5, Folder 9 – General Speeches


February 6, 1985 – Council of 100 Business Leadership Award, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ


Packard was selected as the first recipient of this award and these are the remarks he presented on that occasion


2/6/85, Handwritten 3X5” cards, written by Packard outlining his remarks. These are very brief and cryptic.


“Attention on President Reagan’s budget and State of the Union Address. Tax reform, deficit, what the economy will do, interest rates


“I don’t have any special insight on these issues. I don’t like a lot of things I have been hearing.


“US – Japan Advisory Commission [See speech folder 11/27/84].

Appointed by President Reagan and Prime Minister Nakasone, May 1983

8 US members

7 Japanese members

Held 8 meetings

Made report to Pres. And PM September 1984

[He lists the names of all the members]


“[Commission considered] all aspects of US- Japan relationships

Yen/$ relationship

Agriculture, industrial policy

Security, technology

Long range serious


“US-Japan relationship over past four decades has developed into most unusual relationship between two major nations.

Complete dependence after war

1960 [Japan production] 1/12 of US

Today ½, nearly equal on per capita basis


“US & Japan [together] 1/3 of world production, ¾ of Pacific Basin

Wide range of common interests

Few areas of basic conflict

New era of lasting peace, prosperity in Pacific Basin


“There are some problems, these must be managed better in future


US – Japan’s largest market for manufactured products

Japan – US’ largest agricultural [market]


“Bilateral deficit

20 Billion 1983 – 30 billion 1984

Will probably grow further, 1985 Automobile, Electronic equipment


“Character of Japan’s economy

Export manufactured goods to pay for energy, raw materials and food

US – large domestic market much less incentive to export


“Strong dollar, weak yen. 1979 costs more nearly equal yen below 200/$ Since 1979 cost spread 30%


“Japan labor practices

Heavy emphasis on quality

Automobile 1975 2.9 B

Auto costs 1981 13.7B

Quota on Japanese automobiles, increased costs by $1000

Electronic Products 15B last year


“What can be done?

Voluntary action – open Japanese market

Quotas – tariffs, protections

Japanese know problem serious

Japan does not have advantage in technology

Better management

More competitive spirit

Better teamwork between industry and government

Better education


“Some progress

US must work harder at Japanese market

Industry cooperation


Security Situation in Pacific

US, Japan, PRC

Developing countries doing well

The US-Japan relationship is one of the brightest spots in a troubled world

We must give it a high priority”


10/12/84, Letter to Packard from Marilyn Seymann, Ph.D., telling him that he has “been selected as the first recipient of the Council of 100 Business Leadership Award”

1/31/85, Typewritten sheet listing Packard’s schedule for the day of the award, February 6, 1985

1/31/85, Typewritten note from Laurie O’Brien, Arizona State, enclosing a typewritten membership list of the Council of 100

2/7/85, Letter to Packard from L. William Seidman, Dean College of Business, Arizona State, saying it was an honor to have him visit with them and receive the Award

2/11/85, Letter to Packard from Ron K. Schilling, Arizona State, enclosing copies of some press articles

2/14/85, Letter to Packard from Anne Marie Shanks, Development Director of the Arizona Center for Law in the Public Interest, enclosing a news article  from the Business Journal



Box 5, Folder 10 – General  Speeches


September 9, 1985, Interex Conference, Washington D. C.

Packard was invited to speak at the 1985 Interex North American Conference, a group devoted to the interests of users of HP equipment, particularly computers.


Packard says he is not going to discuss specific products or programs, explaining that both he and Bill Hewlett have not been involved in the day to day business of the company. He does say that the main message he wants to give is that “…the HP computer users groups have become very important to our company because we have had a strong commitment to HP users from the very early days of the company.” He contrasts the typical characteristics of users when HP made general purpose electronic instruments –  “essentially all electronic engineers,” with those of the users of HP’s computer products, “people of all kinds, in every aspect of the economy.”


He makes the point that when most of their customers were engineers they understood their needs very well and had a good rapport with them; but now, with a much more diverse group he says, “It would be impossible for us to keep in good contact with all of our users without organizations like these users groups.”


Continuing on the subject of change, Packard says, “Some people have suggested that Hewlett-Packard is changing from a company dominated by engineers to a company dominated by marketing. I do not see it that way at all.


“From the beginning we had a close coupling between our development engineers, our manufacturing people and the users of our products. We have always had strong connections between engineering and marketing. Our basic philosophy in this regard has not changed at all but has simply been adapted to a new and vastly larger group of users. The development of the HP users groups has made these possible and you have become important members of our team.


“From the beginning we had a close coupling between our development engineers, our manufacturing people and the users of our products. We have always had strong connections between engineering and marketing. Our basic philosophy in this regard has not changed at all but has simply been adapted to a new and vastly larger group of users. The development of the HP users groups has made these possible and you have become important members of our team.


“In the early days of our company we required just as much understanding of what HP users needed and wanted as we do today. The essential difference was that the users of electronic instruments were a small, reasonably coherent group with a limited variety of requirements. We concentrated our work on the development of general purpose products in order to have as many users as possible, but the number was still relatively small.


“We had a special advantage,” he says, “in that all of our technical people in our development laboratories and in our factories and in our marketing organization were electronic engineers, and so were almost all of our customers. We knew that if we developed a new electronic voltmeter or a

signal generator that would do a better job for us in our laboratories and our factories, it would also do a better job for our customers.


Packard says they would allude to that relationship as the ‘next bench syndrome.’ “If the engineer at the next bench in the HP laboratories thought the new development was going to be a useful product, it would almost always be a commercial success when we put it on the market.”


Packard talks about the organization of the company – a large number of relatively small divisions, each having responsibility for a specific group of products. “This structure,” he says, “enabled our development people to specialize in the needs of the users of that product group. Thus this particular management structure was determined in large part to maintain the most effective relationship with the users of our products. We could have developed larger manufacturing organizations which might have had better efficiency in production. There were two considerations that influenced this choice of structure. One was that we believed it would enable us to remain closer to our users. The other was we felt a smaller unit would provide a more friendly, more personal and a more cooperative environment for our employees.”


“This particular corporate structure did not work as well when we became involved in computers and closely related data products such as computer peripherals, and during the last few years we have modified the relationship between our divisions to accommodate the important relationship between products in groups


“Our products were much simpler in the early days, often with only five to ten active elements or vacuum tubes, in contrast to millions of active elements in computer systems today.


“Even though the problems we dealt with were vastly simpler than the products of today, and even though we had a good understanding of what our users might need, we still gave our users a great deal of personal attention.”


“The corporate structure that we had developed to support the users of general purpose electronic instruments worked fairly well during the early years of our involvement with computers, but we were already beginning to deal with a larger and more complex group of users of HP products. We had entered the field of medical electronics and electronic instruments for chemical analysis and we soon learned that the ‘next bench syndrome’ was no longer working.


“ We tried a number of different approaches to establish better rapport with this new group of users in medicine and chemistry. We used doctors and chemists as consultants, established ties with university people in these fields and with medical schools and hospitals. It took time to learn how to work effectively with this new group of HP users but we now have a very good position in both of these fields.


“It was not long after we became involved in the computer business that we realized we were really in the business of developing and marketing general purpose computers and related data products and that we had a great opportunity in a vastly larger and more complex market.


“I do not think any of us felt that new basic principles were involved in the computer market. We simply had to find a better way to serve a new and much larger group of users and we have found it.


“You people who are here tonight and all the other members of the HP users groups around the world have become an important part of the HP team. Because you are members of our team I want to say a word about some of the basic HP objectives which I do not see as changing in any significant way.


“One of our objectives has always been to make a contribution to our field of endeavor, not to be just a ‘me-too’  company. We have tried to be at the forefront of new technology and we will continue to endeavor to do that. As I think you  all know, we have always supported a relatively large research and development program. Over the years we have often been first in applying new technology to a new product. That emphasis will not change and in fact, should be enlarged because we will try to find ways to apply the latest technology not only in hardware but in computer architecture and artificial intelligence.”


Packard speaks of the importance of basic integrity. “One of the most important assets of any organization is its basic integrity. We have always expected all of our people to adhere to the highest  standards of integrity in everything they do related to our business. We expect all of our people to play it straight with our customers, with our suppliers, with each other and with the public at large. We expect no less of each of you in our user groups.”


“Now I suppose all of you want me to say something about the Spectrum program. The program is going well but we will not tell you anything this week about performance, price or delivery. I want to tell you a story that will explain why.


“As some of you may remember, I served as Deputy Secretary of Defense from 1969 until 1972.  During that time I dealt with many problems in the development of new weapons. They wouldn’t perform up to specifications or they cost more than predicted, often both. I concluded that the basic problem was that these new weapons were quite often put into production before they were fully developed and almost always before they had been fully tested in the environment in which they were expected to operate.


“I put into effect some new regulations to insure that production would not start until development and testing had been completed. After I left those regulations were largely disregarded and the problems I tried to deal with are still there.


“Shortly after I came back to HP we started to develop the 3000 computer. I thought our people at HP were smart enough not to announce the performance of a new product before it had been developed and tested to make sure it would meet the published specifications. I did not get back into the day to day detail of these developments but we did have a full scale review of the project when the new product was ready for the market.


“I had been back a couple of years when we had the full scale review of the 3000 project. We found much to my embarrassment that it would barely support itself and wouldn’t even come close to meeting the target performance specifications. Worse yet, literature had been published and distributed to customers six months before this review.


“We had to send the team back to the lab and it took nearly another year before this model 3000 would perform to its published specifications.


“I know that all of our developing and marketing people got the message at that time. It would not bode well for them to forget today.


“The happy outcome was a good product, for as you know the 3000 series which began with that incident has done very well. I do not have the slightest doubt but that Spectrum will do better.”


Packard says he would like to conclude with a word about the future.


“As far as the general outlook for the computer business is concerned I am very optimistic. There is considerable distance yet to go in hardware. There are probably several orders of magnitude yet to go in DSI geometry. There are opportunities for improvement in materials. There are a number of attractive improvements in software. There will be better mass storage, better terminals, printers and communication. In general, computers will continue to become more powerful and less expensive for some time to come.


“The opportunities will be  just as exciting in computer applications, the work most of you here are involved in. We are not using computers very effectively in education and I predict impressive gains in this field in the years ahead.


“Good progress is being made in business management but there is much yet to be done all the way from small business to large and complex manufacturing. Super computers will become less expensive and make it possible to better deal with some of the big, complex problems of the next century.


“Hewlett-Packard is proud to be at the forefront of this exciting field and we intend to say there. We are especially pleased to have these user groups working with us. All of our people involved in the computer business have recognized that the HP computer users are not just important customers, you are also key players on our team – and it’s going to continue to be a winning team.”


10/17/84, Letter to Pam Tower, HP User Group Liaison, from Christopher C. Sieger, Conference Chairman extending an invitation to Packard to speak at the 1985 Interex North American Conference to be held in Washington D. C.

1/11/85, Letter to Packard from Christopher Sieger saying he is gratified to learn that Packard has accepted their invitation to speak at the Conference and giving details of the arrangements

2/14/85, HP internal memo to Packard from Dick Harmon of Press Relations saying that a reporter of INTERACT magazine would like to interview him before the Conference for a promotional article, and he gives several sample questions

9/26/85, Internal HP memo from Pam Tower to Packard thanking him for speaking at the Conference

Undated, Copy of the Bylaws of the International Users Group for HP Computer Professionals



Box 5, Folder 11 –  General Speeches


September 17, 1985 – Statement before the Subcommittee on Trade, Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington D. C.


9/17/85, Typewritten text of Packard’s speech


Packard says he is “delighted” to appear before this Subcommittee to give his views on the U.S. trade deficit, as well as possible ways that might be taken to bring exports and imports into better balance. “This is an extremely important subject”, he says, “and I congratulate you and your associates for holding this hearing and for working to develop a legislative response to deal with our country’s unprecedented and growing trade deficit.


“Packard says he plans to describe what he believes [are] some of the major causes of the deficit, as well as comment on the difficulties he sees in the proposed import surcharge bills before Congress.


The U.S. Trade Deficit


Packard says he sees several reasons for the severe deterioration in the U.S. Trade balance.


  1. “The consistently high value of the dollar abroad has caused sharp declines in U.S. exports and dramatic increases in imports. The strength of the dollar is a direct result of the reputation of the U.S. as a ‘safe haven’ for foreign funds, a strong U.S. economic performance, and extraordinarily high U.S. interest rates – in turn a direct result of massive and ever growing federal budget deficits.


  1. “The huge U.S. market has been an almost irresistible attraction to many foreign competitors. In order to gain market share, many of these firms are willing to sell here at lower profit margins than are acceptable to U.S. suppliers.


  1. “Our exporters face tariff and non-tariff barriers abroad, that are often more than our foreign competitors face in this country. The European Community has high tariffs on many products and heavily subsidizes agriculture. Many of the newly industrialized countries – South Korea, Taiwan, India, Mexico. Brazil and others  — have high tariffs, import quotas and licensing requirements, and restrictions on incoming investment. Although some of these may be justifiable as temporary debt reduction measures, U.S. exporters have been strongly affected by reduced trade with the less developed areas of the world, especially the high debt countries in South America. Japan has lowered some trade barriers in recent years and has removed most legal restrictions to its markets. Nevertheless, Japan still retains some quotas and other restrictions. In addition its traditional buying habits, close industry-government relations and archaic distribution systems make it an extremely difficult market to penetrate. Moreover, the Japanese export industries of such concern to us today grew strong in a domestic market that was protected from U.S. competitors until well past the time when our firms enjoyed a competitive advantage and could build a market in Japan.


“The Federal Reserve estimates that last year’s $123 billion trade deficit cost the U.S. some two million jobs and 2-3 percent lost growth in gross national product. These estimates, however, must be put in perspective,” he says. The Federal Government has been spending more than it has been taking in, he explains. “As a result imports of both goods and capital have been absolutely essential to U.S. economic growth since 1983. Lower priced foreign goods have helped moderate inflation while imports of foreign capital have offset the shortfall, estimated to be equal to about forty percent of domestic savings, needed to finance both the U.S. budget deficit and an investment boom. If foreign sources of capital had not been available the federal Reserve would have had to either expand the money supply, which would have increased inflation, or permit a strong rise in interest rates. Either action would have reduced growth rates.


“Though some U.S. workers have been displaced by imports, 7.3 million new jobs were created between 1982-84 without a surge in inflation. Estimates are that imports reduced the inflation rate by 1.0-1.5 percent by pressuring domestic producers to maintain competitive prices and resist demands for excessive wage increases. As a result, many U.S. firms have moved or are moving to modernize plants and adopt efficient manufacturing processes.


  1. “U.S. business has traditionally focused its efforts on the domestic market while export markets have had second priority. This preoccupation with domestic concerns has meant that in certain areas, United States business has not kept up with its foreign competitors. These competitors have been able to produce higher quality, lower priced products by increasing their capital investments and productivity, and by becoming more technically sophisticated.


Congressional Response


Packard says the Administration has not done enough to stem the growth of the trade deficit. “Furthermore, the efforts of some government agencies have actually increased the deficit. for example, the Defense Department has authorized co-production of U.S. designed weapons in several foreign countries. These arrangements have made significant contributions to our trade deficit, while at the same time increasing the cost of the weapons to the U.S. taxpayers. Some of these actions have been based on legitimate non-economic reasons; but if the effort on the U.S. trade deficit had been considered, I’m sure not all of these co-production arrangements would have been approved.”


With the Administration’s lack of attention on stemming the trade deficit, Packard says the pressure has been on Congress to try to narrow the trade gap – mainly by imposing temporary import surcharges. He says he thinks these surcharges are a bad idea for several reasons:


  1. “Even if such surcharges are permissible under our GATT obligations, other countries would be certain to demand compensation or to retaliate by closing parts of their markets to U.S. products. The result would be more lost U.S. jobs (and less tax revenues to apply against the federal deficit!).


  1. “The imposition of an across-the-board import surcharge would severely limit the ability of the developing countries to repay their debts.


  1. “Such measures would immeasurably complicate the efforts of the U.S. Trade Representative to maintain an open international trading system and to conduct further liberalizing negotiations with our trading partners.


  1. “Broad surcharges would not focus on specific import situations and therefore, would not serve to stimulate the bilateral negotiations necessary to achieve permanent solutions.


  1. “U.S. consumers will bear the brunt of increased prices for imported and, inevitably, U.S. products. The inflationary impact of surcharges is likely to be enormous and its effect on low income consumers most severe.


Packard says that a current bill under consideration in the House (H.R. 3035) has many of the same problems. He explains that this bill would establish a 25 percent across-the-board surcharge imposed on the imports from specific countries, those that:


  1. “Limit access to their own markets;


  1. “Run a substantial trade surplus with the United States and/or the entire world; and,


  1. “Do not take steps to reduce their surpluses by 5 percent the first year and 10 percent each year thereafter.”


Packard agrees that “Conceptually, there are some positive points to [this feature of H.R. 3035]. First” he says, “it sends a strong message from the Congress to some of our trading partners and to the Executive Branch that there is strong public support for decisive action to reduce our trade deficit. Second, it is designed to reduce the trade deficit by putting in place a prospective weapon that can be used if certain countries do not take action to reduce their trade surpluses. Finally, the import surcharge could be removed quickly once a country reduced its trade imbalance.


But, Packard says H.R. 3035 is not an “acceptable response to our present trade problem.”


He outlines some specific problems he sees:


  1. “The statistical provisions that would be used to determine when the ‘standby’ surcharges would be employed and which countries they would affect seem to me to be quite arbitrary. There is no reason to assert that drastic action should be considered to reduce imports when the trade deficit of a country such as the United States exceeds 1.5 percent of Gross National Product. Several major European countries, including the U.K. and Italy, ran merchandise trade deficits in the 5.5 percent range in the 1970’s. The U.S. would have been aghast at that time if they had proposed surcharge measures such as these to reduce their deficits or, for example, to ‘open’ the U.S. market to more British woolens or to more Italian suits and shoes.


  1. Continuing his critique of what he sees as problems with H.R. 3035,  Packard says that “The rather arbitrary exclusion of petroleum trade from the ‘formula’ may discriminate against a whole sector of developing countries and even Japan and the European Community (except the U.K.) that rely upon imported oil to operate their economies. It’s difficult for me to see how any country’s trade activities can be properly evaluated by excluding such a vital commodity. For example, $55 billion of the $123 billion 1984 U.S. trade deficit was due to imports of crude oil and petroleum products.


  1. “I believe,” he says, “H.R. 3035 contains an overly mechanical set of thresholds, levels and action points. International trade is complex and constantly changing and no one is smart enough to be able to prescribe appropriate actions several years in advance. For this reason, I favor provisions that permit a flexible response rather than some sort of doomsday device; which, set to go off more or less automatically years in the future, could produce completely unexpected results.


  1. “The surcharge provisions of the bill hit quite hard at the newly industrialized countries most of whom need to export to help pay their debts. If we consider current account balances, a more accurate way than simple exports and imports to view international transactions because they capture trade in services including interest and royalty payments, Brazil was $1.8 billion in deficit in 1984 and is projected to be about the same in 1985.  This year, Brazil must make $10 billion in payments on its $100 billion debt (owed in large part to U.S. banks). This amount virtually eliminates its projected overall $12.9 billion trade surplus. South Korea, although not in as desperate shape, ran both a $1.1 billion trade deficit and a $1.4 billion current account deficit in 1984, and its current account is projected to be $1.7 in the red this year. It must meet nearly $5 billion in payments on its $49 billion debt in 1985. Taiwan is the only one of the three newly industrialized countries most affected by HR. 3035 that has an increasing current account surplus and low debt. Even so, projections are that Taiwan’s trade surplus will decrease over the next two years.”


“…these [newly industrialized] countries view as major barriers any restrictions the U.S. places on products such as textiles, apparel, shoes, and steel where the have a clear comparative advantage. It is unrealistic to think that they will not attempt to protect these and other important industries. We should expect protectionism and be working with them to define standards by which we can assure that such protectionism is temporary and does not support continued inefficiencies.


  1. As another problem with surcharges imposed by H.R. 3035, Packard says that “No authority exists for a GATT member country to impose large tariff increases on all the exports of one or a limited number of other countries simply because its trade deficit, either with an individual country or overall, has reached certain predetermined, arbitrary levels. To comply with GATT, any action a country takes to restrict market access must apply to all other GATT members and be limited to a specific imported product (or products) that are causing serious injury. GATT members affected by such actions have a right to receive compensation or to retaliate.


“I believe,” Packard says, “the prospects for retaliation would be quite limited – after all, this would hardly be in the interest of countries that wish to remain major exporters to the U.S. market. Nevertheless, the bill, if enacted by the United States, the leading country in the industrialized world, would signal a major shift toward a ‘market sharing’ approach to world trade, away from the concept that trade flows should be primarily determined by market forces. The legislation would distort trade and stunt growth rates as many countries, developed and developing, began to ‘manage’ their trade with the United States and the world to avoid punitive duties that would be imposed if the arbitrary levels within the bill was exceeded. These maneuvers could deprive sectors of the U.S. economy of the most efficiently produced goods at the lowest prices.


“In addition, a possible, even likely, consequence of U.S. action would be passage of similar legislation in both industrialized and developing countries, with each defining ‘excessive trade deficits’ to suit its own needs. Under these conditions countries would soon have to negotiate annually with each other to determine the amount and character of trade they would accept!


Trade Relations With Japan


“Our trade relationship with Japan, the cause of $37 billion of last years’ $123 billion U.S. trade deficit, is especially important. Japan presently bears the brunt of U.S. criticism for loss of export related jobs and the deterioration of our international trade. In part, this is due to past history. In the 1960’s Japanese textile imports caused a reduction in U.S. textile employment – a market that Japan subsequently lost as well. Then it was television sets, then steel, then autos and now we see our high technology semiconductor-conductor, computer, and communication markets threatened by Japanese imports. It is also due to a certain amount of envy and frustration. There is no denying Japan exports high-quality, well-styled, favorably-priced products which have created a market of well-satisfied U.S. customers. There is also no doubt that for a variety of reasons the Japanese market is extraordinarily difficult to penetrate.


“My recent experience,” Packard says, “as the U.S. Co-chairman of the U.S.-Japan Advisory commission has led me to two conclusions. First, the current large U.S. deficit in trade with Japan poses very real risks for both countries. Second, I believe Japanese leaders recognize that a substantial part of the solution to the problem of their U.S. and worldwide trade imbalance rests with them. Let me elaborate on these two points and then suggest a way our country can provide an impetus to help our Japanese trading partners make the kinds of fundamental changes required.”


Packard says he believes the “Japanese know that they cannot prosper in the long run by selling into economies which have continuing, negative balances of trade. For trade to endure over time, it must be mutually beneficial to the countries involved. Such is not the case in the current U.S.-Japan trade relationship. Further, the growing perception of Japanese market protection coupled with a Japanese export drive to the U.S. market undermines a commitment to an open trading environment.


“This negative view of the Japanese approach to trade results from specific Japanese actions. Because their economy is so dependent on adding value for export, they have not pursued policies which might encourage domestic consumption, imports, or unrestricted investment abroad. Thus far, business and government leaders have been politically unable to adjust these policies or to moderate their exports. On the  other hand, the policy of the United States, for example in unilaterally opening our telecommunications market without seeking reciprocal agreements, have provided little incentive for the Japanese to change their policies.


“We need a strategy for dealing specifically with Japanese trade over the short and long term. As a means of addressing the long-term issue of U.S.-Japan trade, a member of the Advisory Commission has proposed affirmative action to reach:


1.  “Agreement on the principle that a persisting, lopsided trade balance between us can have a dangerously destabilizing effect on the relationship;


  1. “Agreement on an objective of bringing under control our current trade imbalance by concerted actions to progressively reduce its size.


  1. “Agreement on a program of specific goals and timetables for achieving this objective, such as actions to gain more access to Japanese markets, restrain various Japanese exports, encourage more Japanese investment in U.S. production facilities, stimulate more imports by Japan, and adjust the yen-dollar exchange rate; and,


  1. “Agreement on a mechanism for periodically examining and

adjusting good faith actions taken to achieve established goals.


“These are all positive steps for correcting the current misalignment. However, nothing will happen until they are put into effect, and given the enormity of our trade deficit, this should be as soon as possible. In my opinion, the only course of action that will have a significant immediate effect on our trade imbalance with Japan is for the United States to:


  1. “Determine by the end of this year (and each succeeding year) the specific amounts on an industry sector, by industry sector basis, by which we want to change our trade deficit with Japan – hopefully reduced, but certainly not increased;


  1. “Construct specific short-term time tables for the achievement of such changes; and,


  1. “Establish appropriate sanctions such as import quotas that would be applied to limit access to the U.S. Market if the timetables were not met.


“With these measures in place, the four points listed by my fellow commissioner could be pursued with the Japanese and their agreement sought to the specific amounts we have previously determined our trade imbalance should be changed. If, at the end of the first six months of 1986, (and each succeeding year) it is determined that the timetables are not being met, the previously determined sanctions would be imposed to remain in effect until the changes have occurred, and the timetables restored.”


“There is a concern that arbitrary quotas or other restrictions might present some dangers. However given the size of Japan’s trade surplus with the United States, its desire to remain a major factor in our market and the selectivity of the approach I’m advocating, I don’t think Japan would press a case for compensation in the GATT, or seek to retaliate. Indeed, I believe continuation of the current trade imbalance and the tension it creates pose even graver concerns. The measures I’ve suggested, could have substantial impact on the future growth of the bilateral deficit. Hopefully, they would be used to achieve more openness in the Japanese market were any sanctions quickly removed upon achieving the desired results. I don’t think our Japanese partners would consider them unfair, and hopefully such measures would provide the much needed impetus they require to address the long-range actions vital to the continued health of our trading relationship.



Alternate Approaches


“Restricting access to the U.S. market through quotas or import surcharges, whether ‘triggered’ automatically or not, is a cumbersome process, difficult to achieve with any degree of precision and certainly not a long range solution. Several longer range steps come to mind which I believe would reduce trade restrictions and lower the large and growing U.S. trade deficit:


  1. “Our government needs to make U.S. trade policy a high priority. The government must recognize that free (or freer) trade, while an excellent goal, cannot be achieved unilaterally. It requires consideration and cooperation from our trading partners. This means that engaging in multi-lateral and bi-lateral trade negotiations and working to strengthen the GATT is not enough. The U.S. must, in addition, rigorously defend its rights. For example, the little used provisions of Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 can and should be a powerful tool to stimulate negotiations and, if necessary penalize our trading partners for their unfair trade practices, including those which restrict our ability to sell in their markets. 301 actions, judiciously and aggressively used, would strengthen the world trading community rather that invite retaliation. Countries realize when the are doing something wrong and, if not corrected will, like children, soon engage in other wrong or illegal acts.


“More laws are not needed to permit the Administration to make trade policy a high priority. Instead, the Administration needs to make better use of the laws the Congress has already provided to obtain fair and equal trade practices. One way to help in this process would be for the President to give the U.S. Trade Representative more influence in making trade decisions. If this were to occur, trade decisions could be reached more quickly and without being subject to so many political considerations.”


“The Administration also needs to make a serious effort to correct various self-imposed practices which have an adverse effect on U.S. exports. These include unnecessary restrictions under the Export Administration and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Acts, the effects of various U.S. tax measures, and limitations on export financing.”


“The Congress can make an important contribution to the reduction of our trade deficit by taking actions that will help United States industry become more efficient. Among these actions are those which will encourage capital formation, reduce the costs of meeting regulatory requirements, stimulate the modernization of manufacturing facilities, and encourage increased investments in research and development, including R&D to improve manufacturing technology.


  1. “The U.S. government must get its own economic house in order. This means a substantial reduction of the Federal budget deficit, preferably through cuts in spending; a leaner and more effective defense program, some reduction in ‘automatic’ entitlements, and actual curtailment or elimination of some programs. If sufficient cuts should prove impossible, an increase in taxes will be required.”


  1. U.S. productivity must be increased. This means corporations must take a somewhat longer view, modernizing production facilities, insisting on competitive labor settlements and, above all, assessing the need for increased productivity against foreign, as well as domestic, competition.


  1. U.S. businesses should be encouraged to go after foreign markets, and particularly the Japanese market. In doing so, it is essential to realize that these markets have to be approached very differently from those of the U.S. Patience, persistence, understanding and a willingness to invest for the long term are all required. However, whenever it becomes apparent that foreign governments or competitors are acting unfairly or not in accord with their agreements they have undertaken, U.S. businesses should not hesitate to move quickly and publicly to make their concerns known to the U.S. Trade Representative, nor should they shy away from preparing and filing the paperwork necessary to support their claims. Standing up for U.S. rights will do much to restore the world’s trading system to vigorous good health.


  1. “The government and the business community should actively support changes necessary to update the GATT and bring more international trade transactions under its auspices. The principle of non-discrimination must be reinforced to reduce the number of actions taken outside the GATT such as ‘voluntary restraint’ agreements, agricultural subsidies and quotas, limits on textile and apparel imports, etc. Third World countries should no longer be able to exempt themselves easily from the principles and standards of the GATT since such actions tend to keep trade barriers in place in both the developing and industrialized worlds. Finally, the GATT codes, principally those on subsidies and government procurement, need strengthening and the GATT dispute settlement process should be reformed to speed decisions and reduce political considerations.”



Box 5, Folder 12 – General Speeches


October 22, 1985, Statement Before Science Policy Task Force, Committee on Science & Technology, U.S. House of Representatives


10/22/85, Copy of typewritten text of Packard’s remarks to the Committee


Packard says he is pleased to be here “to discuss the subject of science in the mission agencies and the government laboratories. This…is a subject that is of considerable interest to me”


“The Federal government has provided an enormous amount of support for American science during the last four decades. It is in a large part because of this massive Federal support that the United States has taken a leadership role in science over the rest of the world.”


“Although the Federal support for American science has been very large in magnitude, it has not been as effective as it should have been. I believe there are a number of specific things that could be done to improve the way the Federal government supports American science, in the agencies, in the Federal laboratories and in the colleges and universities of our country. I would like to make some observations on how I believe our Federal science policy should be improved.


Saying that “Progress in science comes from two basic endeavors, people who think, and people who carefully design and conduct experiments,” Packard offers two guidelines for supporting science.


“First: The scientists are the ‘people who think.’ They should be selected and supported on the basis of the quality of their scientific work, not simply on how well they can write a proposal asking for support. When they are supported, they should not be burdened with preparing unnecessary progress reports, effort reporting and other unnecessary work which takes away the time in which they are to do their real work.


“Second: Scientists must have the proper equipment in order to carefully design and conduct experiments. The equipment needed to keep scientific work at the forefront of scientific knowledge is much more complex and more expensive today than it was in the past. Modern instruments are more accurate and often include computation capability which makes them much more efficient. It is a serious handicap for a scientist to have inadequate equipment and facilities for the work to be done.”


Packard also offers “specific recommendations on how the agencies can do a much better job in selecting the scientists they want to support.”


Packard says he believes the “peer review process should not be carried too far.…[This process] should focus more on what the scientist has actually done, not just on what he says he can do.”


“In our report on the Federal laboratories [See speech May 27, 1984, Report on Federal Laboratory Review Panel] we recommended that each laboratory have a review committee and that the review committee should report not to the laboratory director but to the agency or organization responsible for the laboratory. It was intended that this review committee work would serve to reduce the number of routine reports required of the laboratory. An objective review of work done by a review committee of peers would be a much better way to evaluate the performance of a laboratory.”


“After a scientist, either in a Federal laboratory or at a college or university, has demonstrated good work, that program should be supported to provide long time stability for the work; no routine progress reports but a periodic evaluation of performance by the review committee should be made.”


“Research at colleges and universities deserves continuing support, particularly what is generally known as basic research. Federal agencies and Federal laboratories find it difficult to place research contracts at universities because of the many detailed requirements placed on the contracting procedures.


“All Federal agencies and Federal laboratories should be given specific authority to give contracts to colleges and universities on a sole source basis. There is absolutely no place for competitive bidding for research placed with colleges and universities.”


“I expect it is too much to ask the Congress to refrain from ‘log rolling’ activities where research at colleges and universities is involved. It would be great if this work could be supported strictly on the basis of its contribution to the quality of American science.


“Universities are also having a problem with the equipment and facilities available for their research people. The Federal government has done a fine job in the area of high energy physics where facilities costing hundreds of millions of dollars have been provided. There are many areas of science which may make a much more important contribution to our economic well being, the health of our citizens, and the quality of life than high energy physics. A few tens of millions of dollars for equipment and facilities would bring a big return in the productivity of scientific work in these other areas.”


Talking about tax credits for equipment corporations give to colleges and universities, Packard says one problem is that, while all companies should give equipment to universities where quality work is being done, some use this as an advertising or sales gimmick.”


Another problem [he sees] with the tax credit program is that it does not extend to all colleges and universities on the basis of their real need. “The tax credit program should be supplemented by direct grants for equipment by Federal agencies. The Federal agencies will receive more for their money if they take the responsibility for providing equipment where it is needed in the programs they support.”


Packard says the Department of Energy “has a special problem that needs to be corrected….Our committee on the Federal laboratories noted this problem and I have discussed it with two Secretaries of the department but the bureaucracy has refused to change.


“The DoE treats research grants like contracts to do construction rather than contracts to do research. They have field offices that look over the work being done, they require monthly reports. This requires paper work by the ton. Most of it useless and this poses a large and unnecessary burden on the people doing the research work. They do this to the laboratories they support and they also do it to the people in universities doing research.”


Packard says this apparatus should be phased out, thereby saving many millions of dollars a year, and provide scientists an environment where they would have more time to do scientific work instead of paper work.


“I want to say a word about government owned – government operated laboratories….Because these laboratories are under civil service regulations they are not able to hire, motivate or retain the best scientific people, scientists and engineers. Our laboratory committee recommended that these Federal laboratories be allowed to establish a better personnel management program. This could be patterned after an experimental program which has been operating at the Navel Ordnance Laboratory at China Lake in California. I visited this laboratory and discussed the program with the director. He has been able to improve the quality of his professional staff because of this program. I hope your committee will support this program we recommended.


“I note that the Department of Defense has proposed a similar program for all of the professional people in the department. I believe that would be a big step forward and I support their program. It may be difficult for the Congress to take the big step at this time but I hope they will at least support the smaller step we are recommending for the Federal laboratories only.


“All federally owned laboratories are not federally operated and one choice would be to put all of the laboratories under private sector management. I do not believe it would be wise to do so. I believe the present mix of federally operated and company operated laboratories is about right, but if the Federal government is going to operate a laboratory, it should be able to do so with a commitment to excellence and under policies that would encourage excellence. That is not the case today.


“The Federal laboratory Panel recommended that research people should be allowed to spend part of their time on ideas of their own choice. This would include areas of science other than that of their main program. We thought at least 5% of free time should be allowed, some Committee members thought it should be 10%. This idea is one that is supported by almost everyone who has had experience administering a scientific project.


“This free time is probably the most important source of innovative ideas. Innovative ideas sometimes come from the laboratory director. Innovative ideas that contribute to the quality of American science never come from the Federal bureaucracy. Their ‘innovative ideas’ almost always do the opposite.


“The idea of independent research and development (IRD) for defense programs was originally based on an understanding of the importance of giving scientists and engineers some time free from their assigned work to explore their own innovative ideas.


“This program was effectively destroyed by the ‘Mansfield Amendment’ in 1970 when the Congress required IRD to be limited to ideas related to military work. This required that the justification for IRD be documented to demonstrate the independent work had a military potential. While this requirement has been repealed, the practice has not improved very much. This country would receive much better commercial fall out benefit from the vast sums of money spent on military research and development if the original idea for having independent research and development were restored.


“I hope some of these ideas will be useful to this Committee in its work to help assure that Federal support for science and technology will be as effective as possible. I know that many other committees of the Congress, probably too many, are involved in this issue. I believe, however, this Committee is in a good position to provide leadership and for that reason, I appreciate the opportunity to give you my recommendations.


“I will be please to respond to your questions.”


No other papers in folder


1985 – Hewlett Speeches

Box 3, Folder 46 – General Speeches


March 18, 1985 – Symposium on Economics and Technology, Stanford, CA


3/18/85, Typewritten text of Hewlett’s comments


Hewlett says “Someone upstairs must be chuckling over the fact that he is involved in a seminar on Engineering Economics”  – since a course on that very subject was the only course he failed while at Stanford.”


Hewlett says he senses there is “a gap between the grass-root technical innovation and the very large corporations who are users of technical innovation. How do we move from the individual entrepreneur…to very large technically innovative companies…?”


He goes back some 25 years to the ‘$10 Million Syndrome.’ “This reference.” he says, “was based on the observation that many technically oriented companies reaching about that size ran into serious problems. These problems were sufficiently severe that management could not cope with them, and the company either went out of business or was acquired by a larger organization.”


Hewlett describes three problems which tended to cause such a crises. The first related to management itself. “Typically, such organizations were started by engineers or scientists whose primary skills were in technical fields. They took the attitude that management will take care of itself. Unfortunately, it doesn’t and suddenly they would wake up to the fact that the organization they had created was not capable of meeting the challenges of the future.”


“The second problem concerned financing the growth. “The financial problems of a small company are very different from that of a large one. Initial capital is often available from the individuals themselves or from associates or friends, and certainly in small amounts from banks. However, these funds are quickly swallowed up in the basic working capital needs of a growing company. It is therefore essential that stress be put on the principle of financing growth from earnings.”


And the third problem concerns product line depth. “A new innovative product has a logical life. A company having demonstrated the viability of such a new concept soon meets competition from other companies attempting to exploit such ideas, or as it often happens, newer technologies invalidate earlier inventions. It is essential, then, that if a company is to survive, its product line must be expanded and strengthened. This speaks to continuing research and development efforts which, again, needs to be financed.”


Hewlett feels the only difference 25 years has made is a matter of size – the problems remain today. He sees all of these problems as a matter of economics – “for technically innovative companies, large and small, are affected equally by the economic climate in which they exist. A rudimentary knowledge of economics is really essential to direct the program of a modern corporation”



Box 3, Folder 47 – General Speeches


April 11-12, 1985, – “My Discussions with the Computer,” HP Conference on User Interfaces, San Francisco, CA


4/11-12/85, Copy of typewritten text of talk


In this talk Hewlett quite frankly admits that he is a novice in working directly with computers, and he tells of his frustrations in trying to follow user instruction manuals. One paragraph in particular tells it all:


“It was not until we began to make general purpose computers that my frustration reached a boiling point. I used a new generation of computer whose name I shall not use to protect the guilty. I spent two full days having to learn how to load programs by reading the instruction book from cover to cover several times. In the end I simply threw in the sponge and called for help. The only stipulation was that each step in the process was to be identified by a paragraph number in the instruction book. I can assure you that this turned out to be impossible.”


Hewlett understandably concludes  that “Proper instructions on how to use a computer is just as important as the design of the computer. And I can assure you, that the team that designs a computer is not the team that should write the instruction book. The writing of a good instruction manual is and should be a highly professional matter. To turn it over to the designer can be a disaster, for he simply cannot put himself on the same level as the average user. He inherently assumes a higher level of knowledge than the customer is apt to have. Skills for writing instruction manuals are related to such professional fields as communications, education or psychology, all having something to contribute. In fact, instruction manual writing should really be a field by itself.”


6/2/86, Memo from Brian Egan of HP to Hewlett asking if he could get a copy of the speech made by Hewlett at the User Interface Conference in San Francisco in 1985.

6/30/86, Note from Mollie Yoshizumi, Hewlett’s Secretary, to Brian Egan, sending the requested copy.

7/3/86, Note from Egan to Mollie Yoshizumi thanking her for the copy.



Box 3, Folder 48 – General Speeches


November 16, 1985 – Commencement Exercises, Rand Graduate Institute, Santa Monica, CA


11/16/85, Copy of Hewlett’s comments as printed in a booklet containing other speeches

These are some brief comments made by Hewlett on receiving the honorary degree of Doctor of Public Policy.


Hewlett makes a very brief statement. He says he is not sure what he has contributed to Rand, but he is sure Rand has contributed a lot to him. “…it introduced me to many other operations I would never have gotten into except for my experience here at Rand…. I’m very, very  much indebted to my experience here at Rand. I consider it a great honor to receive this degree. Thank you very much.”