Box 3, Folder 1 – General Speeches
March 22, 1966, Remarks to New York Security Analysts, New York City.
And similar comments to Boston Security Analysts on February 9, 1966. Since these are almost identical only the March talk is covered here as Packard’s notes for that are more comprehensive.
3/22/66, Packard’s handwritten notes for his talk. Notes are frequently cryptic and/or in brief outline form. The following attempts to quote his notes from beginning to end – no editorial text.
“State of Industry
Projections of Electronics Magazine in January.
Total 19,430 +8%
Consumer 3,300 +10%
Color TV 1,400
Industrial 5,837 +16%
Federal 10,200 +6%
These figures look conservative now – Viet Nam 10 Billion. Could go to 19 @ 400,000 men.
International – Figures not very accurate by comparison. Possibly half of US Market. Has been growing fast. Probably slow down. Trend up but slowing.
Industry in tight economic condition.
Material shortages, copper, even aluminum.
Components in short supply, production delays, increasing quality problems.
Skilled manpower – machinists and technicians.
Engineer recruiting, especially at colleges very competitive,
Pressure on Costs – probably not severe.
At IEEE Show integrated circuits had headlines.
Big applications computers and some military equipment.
Impact on instrumentation
HP will have products using IC by end of year.
Give Details in Our Area
Test equipment more accurate and sophisticated.
Trend toward automation.
HP Operations first quarter
Orders – 51,294,000 +35%
Shipments – 43,668,000 +30%
8.7% 3,791,000 +48%
Per Share 31 cents / 20 cents
International – $12,081,000 +29%
Research and Development – 10.5% or about 8.5
All divisions performance good.
Microwave and F&T Viet Nam
Of International 1965
20% Canada and Western Hemisphere
12% Asia and Africa
GMBH – +39%
Balance of payments program will not slow growth. Borrowing in Europe now – may increase, probably at least 10% due to Viet Nam.
Some divisions strong from new plant and equipment expenditures. Little Viet Nam influence.
New products continue to be major factor – cover some of these in detail later.
Cash down, retire preferred stock – 8 million.
Plant and equipment – up. Probably spend 20 million this year vs 10
Accounts payable up – tight money.
Remainder of year push on production.
175,000 sq. ft. Palo Alto
Two buildings in Mt. View
Copper, parts, aluminum ingots
Labor – Overtime and push on wages.
Probably maintain profit margins
New Products have been life blood of growth.
In 1965 – 16 new products produced 17 million out of 30 million gain. We are showing 60 or so new products at
IRE. Not all important but 15 or 20 should have mature sales level of 1 million annually or more.
New Products at IEEE
4260 Universal impedance bridge.
Made in Japan – important to build up sales for other HP products.
Two good products from Oscilloscope division.
141A Variable Resistance Scope
155A Programmable Scope
Other good scope products during year.
2212A Voltage Frequency Coverter.
Computer controlled data system.
Quartz thermometer – volume this year.
Frequency and Time
5255A 3-12.4 GHz Converter.
5206A Automatic Converter.
Will support 5245L Counter
Several new supplies introduced some designed to work with integrated circuits.
Hot corner diodes
New marketing program
New digital voltmeter – improve position
Auto ranging voltmeter
Inexpensive multi-purpose voltmeter.
Vector Voltmeter – sampling
Phase lock for signal generators.
1.5 MC tape system
Intensive Care Units
New instruments on deck – from HPL
New marketing organization
We are in medical business to stay – strengthen R&D and whole management team there.
F&M – Good response
Backup programs at HPL
Porter moving East Coast to provide management support for chemical instruments.
Strong Manufacturing Divisions
Marketing organization complete.
Service centers east and west
Order handling system
In 1956 we did 20 million
We will be pushing 200 million in 1966 – strong hard hitting team in every area.
Continue to make as important contribution in future as we have in the past.
3/22/66, Outline of March 22 speech in New York, handwritten by Packard
2/9/66, Outline of comments for February speech in Boston, handwritten by Packard
9/3/65, Copy of letter from Packard to Richard M Hexter concerning scheduling details for speech.
9/8/65, Letter to Packard from Richard M. Hexter saying 3/22/66 date OK.
3/22/66, Newspaper clipping from Palo Alto Times covering Packard’s talk.
3/25/66, Letter to Packard from Richard M Hexter thanking Packard for speech.
5/2/66, Letter to Packard from John G. Lilienthal complimenting him on speech.
1/10/66, Copy of Electronics magazine forecasting fast growth for electronics industry in 1966.
3/66, Copy of HP InterCom magazine covering several new products
Also copies of many letters requesting copies of speech.
Box 3, Folder 2 – General; Speeches
April 6, 1966 , “The Fourth Dimension of Management” Stanford School of Business, Alumni of Paul Holden Management Luncheon, Los Angeles.
4/6/66, Typewritten text of speech.
As a preface to his talk Packard explains that he had tried to take a course from Professor Holden at Stanford, “but for some reason I could not get into his course – probably because he thought I wasn’t up to it.” He did succeed in taking evening classes from Holden later on and says that “Although I had only limited exposure to the wisdom of Paul Holden in my education on management, that exposure had no small influence on such success as I have been able to achieve. [As a sidelight, it was Professor Holden who requested that Packard speak to this group of Holden alumni and business people in Southern California.]
Packard says that over the past “twenty-five years there have been some interesting changes taking place in management theory and practice,” and he says would like to discuss some of these today.
In the first place Packard says he has seen “a growing recognition of the human side of management.” He recalls a conference on personnel management which he attended in 1946. In answer to a question concerning management’s responsibility beyond trying to make a maximum profit, Packard said he suggested “that perhaps we should provide job security, we should help our people achieve their personal aspirations and those of their families, we should provide the best working conditions possible, because our employees spent half their waking hours with us.” He says he “received little sympathy from the group. Some said, “Yes, to the extent you could prove profits were increased, but not otherwise.”
Today I am sure their answer would be different. Many, if not most, management people would say employee welfare is an objective to be balanced against profits –and other things , too.”
Packard says “A second change in management over the last 25 years has been the growing responsibility management people recognize to the community at large. Business people in the competitive free market system traditionally recognized such a responsibility, but felt apparently, this responsibility was discharged by the performance of their business. Free enterprise business has given America the highest standard of living the world has known, …”What more do you expect of us?” the businessman has asked. But it is clear that society does expect more, and this fact is becoming accepted by the management profession. Charitable support of education by business on a non-restricted basis at an increasing level, is one evidence. Participation by management people in such organizations as the Committee for Economic Development, is another.”
Packard gives other examples of voluntary participation by management when requested by government. When “the President asked the business community to participate in a voluntary program to help improve this country’s balance of payments problem….The participation was widespread and substantial….There has been voluntary participation for the common good at the expense of the short-term welfare of the specific enterprise before – during wartime, or during an obvious national crisis. Participation on a voluntary basis, in such a problem as the country’s balance of payments, requires both a mature and a sophisticated understanding of a complex problem, and a high commitment to the common good.”
Packard gives another recent example where “the President asked the business community to respond, by voluntary action, to help system the increasing inflationary pressures in our economy, by reducing or stretching out new plant and equipment expenditures. I believe the response will be substantial, even though in every case it will require that management people forego something they intended to do for the best interest of their individual enterprises.”
Proceeding with a discussion of changes in management attitudes, Packard says that “One of the key ingredients of management is organization – the structure of the assignments of responsibility. Here, it seems to me, there has been a definite trend away from centralization to decentralization, away from the concept of a military type organization of control by command.
“This trend has been substantially influenced by human considerations. One concept that has affected organization structure is the concept of management by objective. Following this concept, the organization is structured so every employee has as much freedom as possible in applying his skill, knowledge, and initiative to his job. It preserves as much human dignity as possible for every employee – fortunately, if done well, it also makes for efficient performance of the organization.”
Packard describes a concept, used by companies in the past, whereby the Comptroller was expected to control the business, and may have reported directly to the board of directors. Nowadays, however, Packard says “The manager expected to be responsible for his own area of involvement. Accounting and financial control is a tool he is expected to use to do his job better, not as a control to be used to tell him what to do.
“Indeed, the further we move toward freedom for the individual manager, the more we find human considerations and non-financial management techniques being used, in addition to financial controls.” Packard warns that “…in many cases over the last few years, where companies moving toward a decentralization structure have put too much emphasis on short-term profits, and have thereby failed to build long term strength into their organization. This weakness in building long-term strength is evidenced by such things as inadequate personnel development within the organization, failure to recognize the importance of research and innovation, and the absence of well developed long range plans which are understood and accepted by the organization.”
“No one should propose that we know the ideal organization structure, but I do believe we have made a great deal of progress in the right direction. At least some people have come to recognize that the objective of management is to provide an environment in which every person in the organization can utilize his or here ability most efficiently toward the common goal. The problem is to provide an environment under which this is achieved. It is, in by opinion, not well done by a command performance, not under a financial controller, nor under any rigid control from the top, as was thought a few decades ago.
“You may well raise the question about the new scientific methods being proposed for…management….Under this concept, taken to the ultimate, the manager would spend his life sitting before a console – a television type display – which would present facts and figures, charts and graphs, from the corporate computer and its information input system. The manager would push the appropriate button to see his daily or hourly sales, inventory, profit, state of the market, or whatever he thought necessary. It is even conceivable that, having the appropriate model programmed into the computer, the manager could ask the computer to make the optimum decision for the particular circumstances.
“When I think of such a management system I am reminded of a comment made by my friend, Professor Condliffe, who held a Chair in Economics at the University of California for many years….Professor Condliffe tells the story about the old librarian who, in handing out his first book on mathematical economics, said to him, “My boy, if you borrow this book you should not just glance through it and bring it back to me. You should read it thoroughly and digest it. But when you have done this, I beg of you to remember that (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 only on one condition – that “a” is not stronger minded than “b”. If he is, the result will be a3 + b.”
“I presume the management profession will always have those who are looking for ways to find objective and impersonal answers to the complex problems of human organization. Twenty-five years ago the impersonal accountant, the controller, was one such proposal. Today we have the computer which makes possible a much more sophisticated mathematical approach.
“I believe we have made a great deal of progress in understanding the role of the individual in an organization. We have seen the manager’s horizon expanded to better understand the role of the people working in his organization, as well as the relation of his organization to the society in which it exists. For this reason I am greatly troubled by these new trends toward the impersonal approach to management. It is not that I believe mathematics and computers have no place in management. They do. They are important tools. They can collect, refine, and analyze the data necessary to make decisions. In some routine situations they may be able to make the decisions and implement the results. If, however, they are used to manipulate people like cogs in a machine, they will fail in their purpose, and they will be no credit to your profession, not to our society at large.
“It is my hope that these trends, which I have been observing over these past 25 years, toward a more human and a more responsible attitude of management, will continue. Management has come recognize its responsibility to employees as human beings – to recognize that their aspirations and their welfare are as important as profit. Management has come to recognize that a business organization is an important part of, integral with, and responsible to, society at large.”
“The proper role of business is not just to make a profit, but rather to make a contribution to society in all of its facets. Profit is only the proper measure of that contribution.
“This philosophy of management places great demands on the manager. He must be a broad gauged person. He must be knowledgeable in the techniques of management. He must have the vision to see beyond his day-to-day problems, both in time and in distance.
“We see in many business organizations broad gauged people, well trained in the techniques of management. We see men with the far-sighted vision of which I speak. We see new mathematical methods of analysis being used, including computers. We have these things in our company. But when I see a department well run, a division well run, or company well run, I never see it done with good judgment, understanding of human values, mastery of management techniques, or vision alone – there is always a fourth dimension added – it can best be described as the strong minded man. He may even be lacking in some of the other dimensions, but somehow he brings out the best in his people and his organization, and he brings out performance beyond the call of duty. He can do it, whatever his assignment. If he needs financial controls, or mathematical approaches, or computers, he will get them if he can. If he doesn’t have them, he will get the job done anyway.
“This, then, is the fourth dimension of management – the personal drive and leadership ability of the manager. It is the difference between the great manager and the mediocre manager. It is the mainspring of management.”
“I am concerned that there may be too much emphasis in the selection and training of future managers on the techniques, on the mathematical analysis side, even on the human and visionary side, rather than how to identify and train the potential dynamic leader. There may be too much emphasis on how to do it, rather than being able to do it.
“Paul Holden, over his long and distinguished career, has made a great contribution to this fourth dimension of management. He had a great ability to pick students who became doers, and he inspired them in the vision of all of the great challenges of the profession. It is my hope that Stanford, and all the other leading business schools throughout the country, will continue to hold this as their first objective – to build strong in all the dimensions of management – but above all, to select and train the strong minded leader who will make the combination of a plus b squared, become not just a cubed plus b, but a to the fourth power plus b.”
2/4/66, Letter to Packard from John L. Wiester, President Stanford Business School Association of Southern California, asking if Packard would be willing to speak to their group at the annual Paul Holden Management luncheon.
2/24/66, Copy of letter from Margaret Paull to Robert J. Evers sending biography and photo of Packard.
3/1/66, Letter to Packard from John L. Wiester talking about travel arrangements.
3/2/66, Memo from Dave Kirby to Margaret Paull that the Stanford people would like to know a title of Packard’s speech as soon as possible.
4/6/66, Newspaper clipping from Palo Alto Times covering Packard’s speech.
4/7/66, Newspaper clipping from the Los Angeles Times covering Packard’s speech.
4/8/66, Letter to Packard from John L. Wiester thanking him for participating in the luncheon.
4/12/66, Letter to Packard from E. G. Nichols of Weston Instruments, Inc. agreeing with Packard’s comments on computers.
4/15/66, Letter to Packard from Melvyn S. Glass in Los Altos commenting on SP’s speech and enclosing an article by a Louis Kelso which he recommends.
5/2/66, Copy of a letter from Packard to Melvyn Glass saying Kelso’s article “is about as socialistic as I have seen, and would have all the disadvantages of such a system.”
4/15/66, Handwritten, two page letter to Packard from John Troxell, Stanford University Division of Industrial Relations, commenting favorably on Packard’s speech.
Summer 1966, Stanford Graduate School of Business Bulletin containing a summary of Packard’s speech along with photo of he along with Paul Holden and John L. Wiester. Packard is shown receiving the Paul E. Holden Lecture Award.
Several letters requesting copies of Packard’s speech.
Box 3, Folder 3 – General Speeches
May 6, 1966, “Business as a Social Institution” American Heritage Lecture, University of Colorado, Boulder , Colorado
5/6/66, Copy of typewritten speech
Packard says “We are continuing to experience the most impressive period of economic prosperity and growth in the history of America.” He gives some statistics to highlight this: Gross National Product up to 725 billion from 504 in 1960 – an increase of 40%. “To put these figures in perspective, in a mere five years we have increased our output of goods and services by an amount nearly equal to the total goods and services available to the people in France and Germany combined.,.”
Although the future looks bright, Packard sees “a strong current of restlessness, a growing concern among the American people about their society. It is a concern among groups of people who feel they have not received their fair share of the increasing prosperity. But, it is also the concern of people who believe that a society should provide more than material benefits for its people. It is expressed by students …by men and women in government, in professional life, in the arts, and in business and industry. It is a basic questioning of our goals and values – and it is expressed by many thinking Americans.”
Packard acknowledges that with all the unrest going on “…it is difficult to keep the current upsurge of social unrest in perspective. The age-old American Dream of social equality, and a good life for every American, has generated a turmoil which has been recorded, in varying degrees of intensity, in every period of our history. If the turmoil seems greater today it may be because communication between people is more efficient than ever before, with radio, television, easy and rapid travel across the country, in addition to the written word in newspapers, periodicals and books.”
“Even though the present social unrest is expressed in the main by minorities, and its manifestations are magnified by our vast and efficient communication facilities, it seems nevertheless a very real and genuine Phenomena. Behind it lies the immensely important fact that the great economic progress of the Western World has brought legitimate social goals within reach of all. Under these circumstances it seems to me that impatience with progress – rather, the lack of progress – is bound to increase.”
Packard recalls that “Social equality was, after all, one of the founding concepts of America, It represented the opportunity to improve one’s position, to provide a better life for one’s children…. The American Dream was developed in an environment which rewarded hard work and ability, rather than social background. The proper rewards were a better job, a better home, a better economic position, when the majority were living at the edge of poverty. But it is taking a short-sighted view of human nature, indeed, to assume that aspiration are, or should be, limited to the benefits of affluence. An improved economic status is a reasonable first objective in human progress, but it should by no means be considered the only, or the final, objective.”
Packard says that “It seems to me, then, quite reasonable to assume that as satisfactory levels, of material well-being are achieved, other goals and aspirations of people will become more important….Furthermore, as a large majority of our people achieve a satisfactory economic position, those who fail to do so are properly more concerned as to why they are left behind.”
Packard says he does not always agree with the methods employed in some areas of social unrest, not with some of the disruptive forces behind them, “I must conclude that the developments are logical and healthy for the future of America.
“This concern about America and its future is apparent in every facet of our society. It is being expressed in the government by a myriad of new laws and administrative action directed toward social welfare. It is being expressed by the churches, no longer content with the role of leading the way to a better life in the hereafter. They are increasingly becoming involved in trying to make a better life here, now. New organizations to attack social problems are springing up on every side. The institution of business is not exempt from these influences – in fact, the business community is very much at the forefront of the modern social revolution. Today I want to explore with you some of the developments which have been changing the business enterprise from a strictly economic activity to an activity which has a strong social basis, and one which is having, and will continue to have, profound effect on the progress of our society in other than material ways.
“The business community has, almost throughout history, been accused of crass materialistic, selfish motives.”
“In more modern times it has been widely accepted that the business of business is business – and nothing else. The capitalistic, free enterprise, business community of America has traditionally defended itself in this position – by claiming, and with ample justification, that its methods have produced for the American Society the highest standard of living the world has ever known.
“Before the turn of the century the profit motive and free enterprise were sometimes defended on the theory of selective and self-improving evolution – the survival of the fittest.”
“Throughout the early decades of the twentieth century, the profit motive and a laissez faire economic environment were the ingredients which continued to build strength into the American economy, and an improved standard of loving for its people. Business leaders could point with justifiable pride to their accomplishments. The average standard of living in America advanced at an impressive rate. The door was always open for a person with ambition, ability, and a little luck, to move up the ladder – often two rungs at a time. The Horatio Alger story was repeated frequently enough to make it a credible goal for any young man or young woman. And it remains so today.”
But even with all this “impressive economic progress…there has been a growing, disquieting concern that this was not enough. Even before the turn of the century it was clear that the American society expected a broader responsibility from its business community. The government expressed its expectations with laws to control trusts, to protect consumers and employees. Labor unions expanded, often led by men who felt they had been denied opportunities in industry. In time they became a formidable counter-force to the power of business.”
Packard says that depressions would tend to intensify the country’s concern about business practices, “and the great depression of the 1930’s was no exception. When the economy was strong, it seemed reasonable to argue that the harsh practices, which resulted from uncontrolled free enterprise and the profit motive, were a small price to pay for the great economic progress produced. When the economy collapsed, the argument collapsed, and the critical attention of public opinion came to action. This the New Deal added new constraints to business, and the power of labor expanded throughout the thirties.
“The growth of business regulation by law, and the growth of union power, were not without their effect on the attitude of business leaders. Throughout the first part of the century there was a growing awareness that business managers did, in fact, have a responsibility beyond making a profit for their investors. They became more aware that their responsibility to their customers was not limited to the doctrine of caveat emptor. They began to realize that labor was not a commodity to be bought and sold on the open market, but was composed of men and women with human aspirations, and should be treated accordingly.
“This trend toward a greater social awareness on the part of business was encouraged by the development of Scientific Management.” And Packard traces the roots of Scientific Management in American history: Eli Whitney’s introduction of interchangeable parts in 1800, making mass production possible, attention to plant layout and material handling. F. W. Taylor’s techniques, which began with time and motion studies, were directed at improving production efficiency, and provided the basis for a management profession. This new profession was limited to specialists in its early years. Out of this beginning has grown a group of people well trained in the expertise of management, who have largely replaced the entrepreneur as the business leader.”
Continuing his description of the evolution of Scientific Management Packard cites a study by Elton Mayo of Harvard which “brought into focus the “human relations” in management. In a famous experiment at the Western Electric Company, he found that people responded to an improved environment with improved productivity. More important, his experiment seemed to demonstrate that people performed better if someone is simply interested in their welfare. This was a revolutionary idea in the 1920’s, but we see it work every day in our factories throughout the country in 1966.
“Market research brought the needs and desires of the customer into focus. The case of the Model T Ford clearly demonstrated that the business manager who thought he alone should decide what the customer should have would be left behind….No business can survive for long unless it serves its customers well.
“And throughout the past few decades business people have taken an increasing interest in the community around them. This was first expressed by the private philanthropy of men who had achieved wealth through their business careers. They built libraries and schools, and contributed in other ways to the public benefit. Then business organizations began to provide support for the social and cultural activities in the communities where they were located. This trend was greatly accelerated by the New Jersey court decision in A. P. Smith Mfg. Vs. Barlow case in 1953, which established that it was a proper function for a corporation to contribute to the support of education and other social endeavors. In recent years business support of America’s schools, colleges and universities has grown at a rapid rate, reaching a level of some $300,000,000 in 1965.”
Packard quotes William Henry Vanderbilt who, in 1880, said “The public be damned.” And Packard adds the observation that “Were Vanderbilt around today he would discover, perhaps to his dismay, that business has become an important social institution.”
Perhaps “a constructive social institution,” he adds. “Ever since the evolution of the industrial economy, business has had an important influence, in one way or another, on the personal lives of many people.
“The jobs which are provided by the business community supply the sole source of income for a majority of all families. One might conclude, if this income is adequate for a reasonable standard of living, the responsibility of business is satisfied. This, however, overlooks the fact that most people spend a large portion of their waking hours at their job. For this reason it has always seemed to me that the working environment, the satisfaction – the enjoyment, if you will – a person receives from the work he does, is important. And I think most business managers, the people who determine such things, have come to agree.”
Packard talks about the new, attractive industrial parks one sees around the country. And he compares these to “the dirty, unattractive industrial sections I used to ride through on the train going into Chicago twenty years ago.
“When one sees the inside of these new, modern factories, the comparison with factories built a few decades ago is even more impressive. In our company we have gone to great lengths to make our plants as attractive as possible for our people, with good lighting, attractive colors, air conditioning, and recreation areas for use in the noon hour.”
“But it is not just the physical environment which makes a job something more than a way to earn a wage. It is also the attitude and relationship among people in the plant. Supervisors are trained in human relations, and many other things are done to treat employees as people, rather than as numbers on a time clock. There are company activities, clubs of numerous kinds for employees, and in every sense a job has become a part of a person’s social life, as well as his economic life. I am convinced the trends toward this end will expand. “
Packard says “There are many other manifestations of this growing social conscience in the business community. Some are seen in the inner workings of the enterprise, others in relations with the outside world.
“There has been a great deal more attention to the customer, in quality of product, in recent years.”
“I do not propose to say that the business community has developed a social conscience toward the customer without some prodding by government regulations, and without the discipline of a free market. Without a doubt, the free market has been the strongest factor in encouraging a sense of business responsibility to the customer. In any case, if one thinks the customer can be protected by the government alone, I suggest he pay a short visit to Russia, where the government has been in complete control of the production of consumer products. There the public could hardly fare worse in getting what it wants and needs, either in quantity or quality.
“ It is in its relationship with the public-at-large that the development of a social conscience in business is most clearly seen. In this area things are happening which do not have a clearly definable business purpose. In some instances they seem even adverse in some degree to the short-term interest of the business enterprise.”
As examples of this Packard tells of two occasions in the past two years where “the President has called on the business community to undertake voluntary action to help solve a problem of national interest. In one case he asked business to limit expenditures and investments overseas to help the country’s balance of payment problem. The problem was caused primarily by government foreign aid and defense expenditures which generated an outflow of dollars.” In another example “the President asked again for the business community to take voluntary action to help stem the threat of inflation which has been developing in our economy over the past few months….voluntary action has been undertaken, again at the expense of legitimate business plans and programs.
“One of the most difficult problems is that of Civil Rights. There are groups which make the headlines. There has been considerable legislation. Behind this is a great deal of constructive effort by the business community. We are working to make available more jobs for minority groups. Many of the people in the minority groups have inadequate education and training for the jobs which are available. To help in this matter most business organizations have expanded their company training programs to help people improve their abilities and to move ahead. Great emphasis is being placed on the job of improving attitudes for better acceptance of these people in their jobs….What I see going on in the business community is more impressive, and I believe producing more progress, than all of the activities which are reported in the headlines – the governmental activities not excepted.
”Another area, broader in scope, in which the business community is making a significant contribution is that of public affairs. This covers a wide range of community, civic and political activities. Not too many years ago, most businessmen took the attitude that “politics is none of my business – nor the business of my employees.”
“Today, however, we find many companies who are devoting considerable time, money and effort to encouraging their employees to take a more active, personal interest in political and other civic affairs….Business is no longer content to “let George do it”; it has come to the realization that politics is not the politicians’ business – it is everybody’s business.
“Week in and week out I see business people concerned with other national problems. I see them providing advice and counsel to various governmental agencies, serving on committees, doing a number of public-spirited jobs – often at a sacrifice of time and energy which could be well spent in managing their own enterprises.”
Packard cautions that “…while I have pointed out that business has come a long way in developing a social conscience, let me assure you that it still has a long way to go. There are still within our ranks practitioners of chicanery, double-talk, fact-dodging, half-truths. There are those who are so enamoured with short-term profits that they overlook the importance of building long-term strength and vitality into their organizations.
“And even among those who have shown a flicker of public spirit, of responsible citizenship, there are still some who are unwilling to tackle the really big problems of the day – civil rights, mass transportation, water pollution, poverty, urban renewal. These are problems that cannot be solved by any single group of our society, but by the cooperative effort of many dedicated groups.
“As an example of an area where much remains to be done, let’s look at education. I mentioned that business support of education now amounts to nearly $1,000,000 per day. This is an enormous outlay, and one of which the business community is justifiable proud. But simply turning over a check to his favorite school or college does not end the businessman’s responsibility to education. He needs to take an interest in how the money is spent. He often does serve on governing boards to help the educational institution utilize its resources effectively. But the businessman can and should participate in many other ways to help our schools and colleges do a better job of educating America’s most important resource – our many millions of younger people.
“I realize there are some in the academic profession who believe that education is the proper concern of the faculty alone – that outsiders of any kind, including businessmen, should not attempt to influence the educational process. There is a great deal of tradition begin this view and in the main it has some merit. Nevertheless, I firmly believe there are many areas in which business people can properly and effectively make constructive contributions to the educational process. They can serve as lecturers in fields of their competence. They can provide consulting opportunities and temporary jobs for professors which reflect back in the professor’s classroom to the benefit of the student…I see nothing wrong – in fact, I see much benefit – when businessmen as well as other citizens take a constructive interest in the educational process at all levels.”
Packard acknowledges that business firms have focused a great deal of time and money on colleges and universities, and he asks the question “But what of the fifty percent of our younger people who will never get to college? These people, many of whom are employable and certainly trainable, are in many cases being shunted off into the wings. As Peter Drucker, the noted business writer and lecturer, has pointed out, there is a real danger that our country will be divided by the “paper curtain” of the college diploma. This is a political and social danger – and I think an economic danger. It certainly is, or should be, the concern of every business leader to create opportunities for the non-college graduate and to see that he is not considered an object of charity. It seems, then, that it should be a concern of businessmen to work with educators at all levels of our school system – from the first grade on up – to see that we are getting the most for our educational dollar and to help teachers and administrators with the enormous job which rests on their shoulders.
“It has been pointed out that the business leader, in attempting to improve the quality of our society, is sometimes confronted with conflicting pressures. On one hand is the responsibility to his stockholders and employees to optimize profits. On the other hand, his efforts to upgrade the social environment may, in fact, penalize profits.
“Actually, in my judgment there is little conflict between a corporation’s social responsibility and its economic responsibility to is stockholders. And what little conflict exists is focused on the short term, rather than the longer, broader gauged view of return-on-investment.
“While stockholders expect the corporation to earn a profit today, they also should expect it to create and enhance an environment in which it can continue to earn a profit tomorrow.
“In the course of these remarks I have emphasized that business has come a long way from the laissez faire, profit-motivated attitude which prevailed at the turn of the century. But I don’t wish to imply that freedom of business decision and profit making are no longer important. These, in fact, remain the mainspring of our entire economic system. The myriad decisions necessary for a vigorous, growing economy cannot be effectively made from a central authority. Rather they must be formulated within the business community itself, operating in the framework of a free and competitive market.
“It is my firm conviction that this same freedom of decision by business management is a powerful force in overcoming the great social problems confronting America. Legislation can provide a guide to social betterment, and action groups may add to the incentive, but the real progress comes from the day-to-day decisions of those people directly involved. To a very large extent these are the thousands of business leaders throughout the country.
“But social progress is impossible without economic progress; therefore social progress will be made only if we continue to have a healthy, growing economy. In our free enterprise system, economic health and vitality are, in the final analysis, determined and measured by profit. Today we consider profit not just as a return on the investment made in a business, but as the best single measure of the contribution a business makes to the society in which it exists. And the profit a business makes is, in the final analysis, the sole source of its strength to grow, to provide more and better jobs, to do its share in helping to create a better life for its employees, for its customers, and for the public-at-large, as well as for those people who invest and risk their money in the business.
“Business has come a long way in evolving from a strictly economic institution into a powerful, constructive institution working for the cause of social betterment. This evolution has been encouraged by Government action. It has been advanced by the pressures of unions and public opinion. It has been implemented by the development of asocial conscience among business leaders. Perhaps you would prefer to describe it simply as the development of an enlightened self-interest in the business community However you may wish to describe it, whatever the motivating forces behind it, I am convinced that it is one of the most important pillars of the social progress which we all hope to achieve as we more on into the future.”
10/25/65, Letter to Packard from J. R. Smiley, President, University of Colorado, inviting him to be their1966 American Heritage Lecturer.
10/27/65, Letter to Packard from William H. Baughn, Dean, School of Business, expressing the hope that Packard will be able to participate in the American Heritage Lecture Series.
10/29/65, Copy of a letter from Packard to J. R. Smiley wherein Packard says he is leaving on a trip and will let them know if he can participate in two weeks.
11/16/65, Copy of a letter from Packard to J. R. Smiley saying he has decided he can
participate in the Lecture Series.
11/23/65, Letter to Packard from J. R. Smiley expressing appreciation on hearing Packard will be able to speak, and suggesting dates.
1/12/66, Letter to Packard from William H. Baughn discussing possible dates.
1/17/66, Copy of letter from Packard to William H. Baughn agreeing on date of May 6 and saying he will discuss business management.
1/26/66, Letter to Packard from William H. Baughn requesting the title of Packard’s talk when convenient.
2/25/66, Copy of letter from Margaret Paull to William H. Baughn enclosing photo, biography, and giving title of Packard’s speech as “Business as a Social Institution.:
3/1/66, Letter to Margaret Paull from William H. Baughn thanking her for the above information.
4/11/66, Letter to Packard from Maurice, Label, enclosing the program for the May 6 American Heritage Lecture. The program is included.
4/15/66, Letter to Packard from William H. Baughn discussing travel arrangements.
4/18/66, Copy of letter from Packard to William H. Baughn discussing travel arrangements.
4/20/66, Letter to Packard from William H. Baughn discussing dinner arrangements.
4/25/66, Letter to Packard enclosing a copy of an article to be printed in Newsweek Magazine titled “What Americans Really Think of Business.
5/11/66, Copy of letter to David Kirby of HP from Robert S, Dunham, Editor University News Service, discussing printing of Packard’s speech in the Colorado Quarterly.
3/24/66, Printed pamphlet containing a speech by George Champion, Chairman of the Board, Chase National Bank, titled “private Enterprise and Public Responsibility in a Free Economy.
5/6/66, Printed program of the School of Business Business-Alumni Conference to be held on May 6 and 7.
Box 3, Folder 4 – General Speeches
June 2, 1966. Acceptance, Hoover Medal, Stanford Alumni Associates, New York City
6/2/66, Typewritten text of Packard’s comments on receiving this award, with some handwritten notations by Packard.
Packard speaks primarily of Herbert Hoover, saying that “This medal has special significance for me because I had the great fortune to become well acquainted with Herbert Hoover during the last few years of his song and fruitful life.
“He was devoted to Stanford, to education and to scholarship in the highest sense of the word. He was a Stanford trustee for 50 years. He founded the Stanford Business School and made many important contributions to Stanford during his long term of service as a trustee. On several occasions he told me that he considered the establishment of the Hoover Institution on the Stanford campus as the most important work of his lifetime.
“Most people, particularly in this country, thought of Herbert Hoover as a dedicated conservative and a staunch supporter of free enterprise and what he referred to as rugged individualism. These things he believed in and stood for. But he was first and above all a practical idealist and a humanitarian.
“He saw so much human suffering he desperately wanted the future to be better than the past. It was for this reason he placed great hope in this institution he founded at Stanford. He hoped that scholars, by studying the lessons of his contemporary times contained in the vast collection of documents he assembled in his institution, would be able to point the way to a better future for the world. Many of us are working to expand the role of the Hoover Institution at Stanford because we share his aims and hopes.”
“When speaking of his profession – engineering – he emphasized its social benefits. He spoke of the “unending stream of goodness from engineering – jobs and homes for men.” He said, “engineering elevates the standard of living and adds to the comports of life.”
“ Mr. Hoover’s to devotion to the welfare of mankind stemmed, no doubt, from his Quaker upbringing and it encouraged him to spend the last 50 years of his life in public service. Time and again his high motives called similar response from those who knew and worked with him As Food Administrator in World War I, he relied largely on voluntary cooperation from the business community…. In accepting President Wilson’s appointment Mr. Hoover responded saying, “I hold strong to the view that while large powers will be necessary in a minority of cases, the vast majority of the producing and distributing elements in the country are only too willing and anxious to serve.”
Packard describes Hoover as “…a warm, philosophical man with a good sense of humor. He loved to sit around after dinner and tell stories….Often these stories would get around to fishing which was his great hobby.”
“The importance of this event today is not that I am the recipient of this medal – rather it is that the Herbert Hoover Medal established by the Stanford Alumni Association will serve year after year, to recall for the benefit of new generations, the wisdom and teachings of one of the great men of the twentieth century. With the increasing trend in America toward socialism, toward a welfare sate – with the growth of the new radical left infesting our universities – and other forces striking at the traditional pillars of the American society, we need to preserve as a stabilizing element Herbert Hoover’s kind of practical idealism, his respect for the individual and the contributions an individual can make in an environment of freedom, his kind of devotion to human welfare. If the tradition of the Herbert Hoover Medal contributes to this end, it will serve a worthy purpose regardless of such honor as may be bestowed on the recipients.”
6/2/66, Text of speech handwritten by Packard.6/2/66,
6/2/66, Newspaper clipping covering speech.
6/2/66, Stanford University News Service release on speech.
6/66, Clipping from Stanford Observer covering speech.
1/11/66, Letter to Packard from Lewis L. Fenton, Stanford Alumni Association following up on a previous conversation about Packard having been selected to receive the fourth Herbert Hoover Medal, and discussing possible dates.2/3/66, Copy of letter from Packard to Lewis Fenton discussing dates.
2/11/66, Letter to Packard from Robert Pierce with further discussion of dates.
3/24/66, Letter to Packard from Lyle M. Nelson enclosing a copy of speeches made at the Herbert Hoover Medal award ceremony in 1965.
5/2/66, Copy of letter to Bill Hewlett from Roger Lewis of the Alumni Association inviting him to the award ceremony.
5/10/66, Letter to Packard from H. H. Buttner [HP Director], congratulating Packard on the award and telling him he will be at the luncheon.
6/2/66, Lists of invitees and acceptances.
6/9/66, Copy of letter from Packard to Roger Lewis thanking him for serving as host at the Hoover luncheon.
6/3/66, Handwritten letter from Thomas Martzloff to Packard asking for the name of a book Packard had referred to previously.
6/9/66, Copy of letter from Packard to Richard C. McCurdy thanking him for serving as host at the Hoover luncheon.6/9/66, Copy of letter from Packard to Tom Martzloff sending him a copy of a publication called Western Politica, published by a group of students at Stanford. Packard also mentions the Port Huron Statement, describing it as “a manifesto of the Students for a Democratic Society.”
6/6/66, Letter to Packard from James C. Haugh congratulating him on the award.
6/9/66, Copy of letter from Packard to James Haugh expressing his appreciation for Mr. Haugh’s support on behalf of Stanford.
6/22/66, Letter to Packard from John L. J. Hart sending an enclosure which is not named.
6/23/66, Copy of letter from Packard to John L. J. Hart thanking him for the clipping and saying he looks forward to seeing him at the “Grove”.
7/6/66, Copy of letter from Packard to the Stanford Alumni Association c/o Lewis Fenton expressing his appreciation for the award. Packard says “This recognition will give me great encouragement to continue to help our University toward the standards of excellence which will make all alumni proud of their Alma Mater.”
7/21/66, Letter to Packard from Robert M. Golden, President Stanford Alumni Association, extending an invitation to Packard to participate in any Alumni Association activities, and in particular mentioning the new camp on Fallen Leaf Lake.
Many letters of regret that they could not make the award luncheon, or of congratulation`.
Box 3, Folder 5 – General Speeches
September 17, 1966, Industrial Development of Colorado: Opportunities and Problems. Loveland Chamber of Commerce Industrial Days Banquet.
9/17/66, Typewritten text of speech with handwritten notations by Packard.
Saying that HP first opened a plant in Colorado seven years ago, Packard tells his audience that the coming to Colorado “has been a very good decision for our company. I hope you also feel it was a good decision for Colorado – and for Loveland and Colorado Springs, where our plants are located.
“Both of our divisions in Colorado have prospered, and we believe they will continue to do so. They have done well because we were fortunate to have, from the very beginning, a competent group of people to establish and manage these divisions.
“These divisions have done well because Colorado provides an excellent environment for a technologically-oriented industry like ours.”
Packard also refers to the “splendid help and cooperation we have received from so many people throughout the state.”
Saying that “Colorado has been eminently successful in attracting new industry over the past few years”, Packard says he “would like to pass along a few thoughts about the problems and opportunities of industrial development here in your state.”
Packard’s first point is that “the underlying purpose of industrial development for a state or a region is not just to improve and strengthen the economy, but also to contribute to – and improve if possible – the social environment of the area.
The main objective of industrial development is to make a region a better place for all of its citizens. Now, this is a difficult problem in practice because it involves the interests and aspirations of many people, and these often come into conflict. But it is important that these diverse interests and aspirations be recognized and dealt with by everyone involved.”
Packard acknowledges that many changes have come to Loveland following the arrival of Hewlett-Packard. :”There is more traffic,. There are new pressures on schools. Many new houses have been built. Business activity, particularly service type business, has expanded.
“We hope the changes that can be attributed to our being in the area have been, in balance, good for the community. I am certain there are some who would prefer to have Loveland the way it was before -–or at least those who look upon some aspects of this rather substantial growth as not all for the better.” Packard quotes John Gardner, the U.S. Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, as saying in reference to a changing world that “It’s perfectly safe to be nostalgic about the world we left behind us. It’s gone forever. We have no choice but to try to make the world of the future the kind of world we want, the kind of world we think is worth living in.”
“Industrial development affects not just the economy of an area, but the social environment as well. It provides strong motivation for change – for many kinds of change.
“This makes a strong case for the importance of long range planning by any community seeking to expand its economic base by attracting business and industry. Long range planning of the entire community or area in all its aspects is an absolute necessity to guide growth accelerated by new industries attracted to the area. Even with good planning, implementation is difficult and things don’t always turn out the way we hope. Planning and its implementation in the right direction is difficult because there are many interests involved and they are often in conflict to some degree, at least.”
Saying that “Good planning requires imagination…and leadership.” Packard points out some of the many questions that must be given consideration: “Careful thought has to be given to what the community should be like ten or twenty years ahead. The plan should be based on a thorough understanding of what the community hopes it will be when and if the industrial development program is completed. The existing pattern of the community is bound to be affected. What will the new pattern be? Is the industrial complex to be integrated from residential sections? What are the ultimate traffic patterns? How are the schools, shopping areas, recreational facilities related to industrial areas?”
The uncertainties of business make it difficult for companies to predict the future and this “demands that community-industry planning be flexible, cooperative, and continuous. We encourage our divisions to cooperate closely with the people in their communities with the hope that their help will be constructive in encouraging sound long-range planning for the benefit of the entire community and in carrying out those plans on a year-to-year basis. We want to make a meaningful contribution in this direction here in Colorado. If you feel there is more we can do in any area, I hope you will tell us so.
“I say this not in a sense of high-minded idealism – I say it from a hard-nosed business viewpoint. Our company will be more successful in Colorado of Colorado is a better place to live, to raise families, to provide a proper environment for people to achieve their personal aspirations. Today, more than ever before, the success of a company is determined by its people. If they are capable, enthusiastic about their work, enthusiastic about where they live, their success working together in a business enterprise is most likely to be assured. This has become more apparent to the business community in recent years as an important ingredient in a successful enterprise.”
In the past, Packard says, “prime attraction for industry to Colorado has been natural resources. The economy of your state has been built on mining, agriculture, limbering, smelting and refining, and of course, tourism. All of these are almost entirely dependent on Colorado’s great natural resources….There has been no large pool of skilled labor, no mass market, nor low-cost transportation to mass markets.
“However, in recent years the door has been opened to a new and great opportunity for Colorado. This opportunity stems from the development of what are often called knowledge-based industries. This type of industry has changed the traditional ground rules for plant locations. Because it is less dependent on raw materials and energy sources, it can be more flexible in choosing a location. It measures site selection by other criteria, and it is this that provides the opportunity for industrial expansion in Colorado.”
Following this thought, Packard suggests that “It might be interesting to review what we in Hewlett-Packard consider to be the primary considerations for the selection of a new plant location for our company. Other companies might have different areas of emphasis, but I believe they would generally have the same criteria on their lists.
“The first of these is that of living conditions. That is, a desirable community and region in which people can live…Colorado is a good place to live. It has an excellent climate, many attractive residential communities, good government, and a good public school system. These assets are attractive to people, They should be nurtured and improved. Unfortunately they can be deteriorated or destroyed by unplanned, too-rapid growth. I would thus again emphasize the importance of sound planning directed toward keeping an attractive residential character in your cities and towns. This is not inconsistent with industrial development, but complementary to it.
“The development of large urban centers with industry concentrated in unattractive surroundings, people driving on crowded highways to go to work every day, should, in by view, be discouraged whenever possible.”
Packard tells of a recent article in the U.S. News & World Report magazine which included information gained in Loveland. “…The article posed some of the issues we are talking about here tonight – that is, the almost overwhelming problems of the megalopolis., including population, traffic, pollution, crime, and costs. It then presented the views of a number of industry representatives supporting the position that industry can find a home, indeed a very pleasant home, in many smaller communities through the country.
“Our feelings on this subject were reported in some detail, and certainly reflect our satisfaction with living and working in Loveland and Colorado Springs.”
“I would hope – with Colorado in its early stages of potential growth – that those of you who are undertaking to guide the future of the sate will place great emphasis on this concept. Colorado has the opportunity to become the model of industry-community development of the future. By careful planning you can avoid the disaster of over-concentration of people, air and water pollution, frustrating traffic, and other difficulties which have befallen many communities throughout the country.”
“A good establishment in higher education is a very important attraction to new industry, and has high priority on our list of criteria. You in Colorado have an excellent state university system, and a number of good private colleges and universities as well. This was an important consideration which attracted my company to Colorado. One out of every eight people Hewlett-Packard employs is a college graduate. They are scientists, engineers, management people living in a fast changing world. They must be dedicated to continuing education to keep abreast of their professions. They seek and need continuing formal education, and they thrive and produce best in an intellectual environment.”
“Good air transportation is essential for any industry operating on a national or international basis, and therefore another important consideration. Fortunately, you have in Denver one of the country’s major air terminals. This, too, was a decisive factor in Hewlett-Packard’s selection of Colorado. I hope you will remember that this is an important asset for the state’s industrial development program.”
“A fourth criteria, which is also of extreme importance to us, is the availability of the kind of people we need. In our line of work, we have an almost continuing need for highly trained and motivated engineering and scientific personnel. Ours is an industry of innovation. New and worthwhile electronic, chemical, and medical instrumentation is our life-blood.”
“We, along with many other companies of our type, also have need for a pool of skilled and unskilled labor. As our company grows, we have ever-expanding requirements for electronic technicians, machinists, secretaries, and others with similar special training.”
“It is also desirable to locate in communities which have a high percentage of high school graduates. There are many activities in our manufacturing processes that can be undertaken by these people, following a short in-plant training period.”
“And finally, site selection is heavily influenced by the posture of local, regional, and state governments. We seek communities that have progressive, efficient local governmental organizations that encourage sound industrial development; organizations that can meet the challenges of community planning in the face of a changing environment. Se seek out those states that have demonstrated a sincere interest in business and industry. We are not seeking favors, only favorable attitudes.
“Once established, we expect to be a community neighbor for a long time. We would hope, therefore, that immediate favorable attitudes demonstrated by the region and the state would be extended for many years into the future. Needless to say, this relationship is a two-way street, and we would expect to conduct our business in a manner consistent with the policy of being a good neighbor.
“Let me say again, we are very pleased that our company came to Colorado. Let me also say that I believe all of you deserve a great deal of credit for the industrial development which has taken place over the last few years in Colorado. I suspect many who are working to encourage more industry to come here are disappointed that the progress is sometimes slower than you hope for. It seems to me progress may sometimes be slower that desired – especially if you are careful and selective in what you do.
“On this point I would suggest much caution against haste. It has been proposed, for example, that communities should issue tax free bonds to offer special inducements for an industry to come to the community. This, in by view, is a very hazardous procedure. Some communities in the south have done this to build plants for an industry, only to find that after a few years the business fails, or for some reason has to move elsewhere. The community is then left to pay off the bonds with no industry to help.
“I hope you will not adopt this procedure here in Colorado. If the attraction you have is not sufficient to encourage the industry to come under normal business procedures, you are probably better off without it. Artificial inducements encourage poor decisions for both the industry and the community and should be avoided in most cases.
“”I am very pleased to have had this opportunity to be here with you tonight. I have enjoyed seeing many of my old friends, as well s the many people here who have become new friends with our company’s involvement in Colorado. I hope you consider the Hewlett-Packard Company an important partner in the future progress of Colorado. We will do our best to justify your confidence and your faith in the industrial future of your state.”
9/17/66, Copy of typewritten “excerpt” from this speech
6/23/66, Copy of letter from Packard to Mark W. Cordell, Manager Loveland Chamber of Commerce. Packard confirms he will talk at the Industrial Days Banquet in Loveland on September 17th.
7/17/66, Letter to Packard from Mark Cordell, giving details of the banquet day.
8/5/66, Copy of letter to Dave Kirby from Paul Rice, President First National Bank, Loveland, CO, inviting the Kirby’s to the dinner.
9/27/66, Letter to Packard from John R. McKeown, saying he enjoyed Packard’s talk.
9/21/66, Letter to Packard from Carl N. DeTemple, Secretary Colorado Association of Commerce and Industry. Congratulating Packard on speech and asking for a copy.
9/30/66, Copy of letter from David Kirby to Carl DeTemple sending a copy of Packard’s speech.
Box 1, Folder 27 – HP Management
January 12, 1966, Management Conference, Monterey
1/1/66, No agenda is included, but some brief notes in Packard’s handwriting is in the folder:
Mfg. Div 23%
Getting Business 10%
Growth 16% for 1966
How we get there
Better Mousetrap theory
3/31/66, A letter from Cort Van Rensselaer to Department heads sharing feedback from discussion groups at the Jan. 12. conference.
1/19/66, Agenda for a “Little Monterey” meeting to share discussions with a broader audience.